CMS logoCMS event Hgg
Compact Muon Solenoid
LHC, CERN

CMS-HIN-23-011 ; CERN-EP-2024-057
Overview of high-density QCD studies with the CMS experiment at the LHC
Submitted to Physics Reports
Abstract: The heavy ion (HI) physics program has proven to be an essential part of the overall physics program at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Its main purpose has been to provide a detailed characterization of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), a deconfined state of quarks and gluons created in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. From the start of the LHC HI program with lead-lead collisions, the CMS Collaboration has performed measurements using additional data sets in different center-of-mass energies with xenon-xenon, proton-lead, and proton-proton collisions. A broad collection of observables related to high-density quantum chromodynamics (QCD), precision quantum electrodynamics (QED), and even novel searches of phenomena beyond the standard model (BSM) have been studied. Major advances toward understanding the macroscopic and microscopic QGP properties were achieved at the highest temperature reached in the laboratory and for vanishingly small values of the baryon chemical potential. This article summarizes key QCD, QED, as well as BSM physics, results of the CMS HI program for the LHC Runs 1 (2010-2013) and 2 (2015-2018). It reviews findings on the partonic content of nuclei and properties of the QGP and describes the surprising QGP-like effects in collision systems smaller than lead-lead or xenon-xenon. In addition, it outlines the scientific case of using ultrarelativistic HI collisions in the coming decades to characterize the QGP with unparalleled precision and to probe novel fundamental physics phenomena.
Figures & Tables Summary References CMS Publications
Figures

png pdf
Figure 1:
Integrated luminosity delivered to the CMS experiment with PbPb and pPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 5.02 [45] and 8.16 TeV [46], respectively, as a function of time during the LHC Run 2 period. The years of data collection shown correspond to 2015 (purple), 2016 (orange), and 2018 (navy blue). This plot shows the proton-equivalent luminosity, i.e.,, the values for the PbPb data have been scaled by $ A^2=208^2 $ and the values for the pPb data by $ A= $ 208.

png pdf
Figure 2:
A simplified sketch of the acceptance in $ \eta $ and $ \phi $ for the tracking, calorimetry (ECAL, HCAL, CASTOR, and ZDC) and muon identification (``Muons'') components of the CMS detector. In the lower section, the central elements (that is, excluding ZDC and CASTOR) are arranged based on their proximity to the beam, with the tracker being the closest element of the central detectors, and the muon detectors positioned farthest away. The size of a jet cone with $ R = $ 0.5 (to be discussed in Section 2.10) is also depicted for illustration. (Figure adapted from Ref. [4].)

png pdf
Figure 3:
An almost head-on collision event selected from the 2018 PbPb data set. The yellow lines show the huge number of charged-particle tracks and the two cones show nearly back-to-back candidate jets originating from bottom quarks. (Figure adapted from Ref. [76].)

png pdf
Figure 4:
Left: Efficiency for the 50 GeV single-jet trigger as a function of the corrected leading jet transverse momentum in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV. Right: Efficiency for the 15 GeV photon trigger as a function of the corrected photon transverse energy in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV. (Figures adapted from Refs. [103,104].)

png pdf
Figure 4-a:
Left: Efficiency for the 50 GeV single-jet trigger as a function of the corrected leading jet transverse momentum in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV. Right: Efficiency for the 15 GeV photon trigger as a function of the corrected photon transverse energy in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV. (Figures adapted from Refs. [103,104].)

png pdf
Figure 4-b:
Left: Efficiency for the 50 GeV single-jet trigger as a function of the corrected leading jet transverse momentum in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV. Right: Efficiency for the 15 GeV photon trigger as a function of the corrected photon transverse energy in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV. (Figures adapted from Refs. [103,104].)

png pdf
Figure 5:
The L1 and HLT trigger efficiencies for the high-multiplicity triggers as functions of $ N_\text{trk}^\text{offline} $ for 5.02 TeV pPb collision data taking in the year of 2013. (Figure adapted from Ref. [105].)

png pdf
Figure 5-a:
The L1 and HLT trigger efficiencies for the high-multiplicity triggers as functions of $ N_\text{trk}^\text{offline} $ for 5.02 TeV pPb collision data taking in the year of 2013. (Figure adapted from Ref. [105].)

png pdf
Figure 5-b:
The L1 and HLT trigger efficiencies for the high-multiplicity triggers as functions of $ N_\text{trk}^\text{offline} $ for 5.02 TeV pPb collision data taking in the year of 2013. (Figure adapted from Ref. [105].)

png pdf
Figure 6:
Charged hadron multiplicity density evaluated at $ \eta= $ 0 ($ \mathrm{d} N_{\text{ch}} / \mathrm{d} \eta |_{\eta=0} $) as a function of centrality class in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 2.76 TeV from the CMS (solid circles) and ALICE [116] (open squares) experiments. The inner green band shows the measurement uncertainties affecting the scale of the measured distribution, while the outer grey band represents the full systematic uncertainty, i.e.,, affecting both the scale and the slope. (Figure adapted from Ref. [106].)

png pdf
Figure 7:
Muon reconstruction and identification efficiencies as functions of the simulated muon pseudorapidity and $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ in pPb (left) and PbPb (right) collisions. The lines delimit the acceptance regions used for physics analyses: the red curves for measurements not relying on a dedicated muon trigger while the green ones are for analyses using the muon trigger information, i.e.,, for most of the quarkonia results presented in this paper. (Figure adapted from Ref. [125].)

png pdf
Figure 8:
Isolated photon detection efficiency in $ |\eta| < $ 1.44 as a function of $ E_{\mathrm{T}}^{\gamma} $ obtained from MC simulations. Left: PbPb collisions in the 0-10% centrality range. Right: pp collisions. Both the PbPb and pp collisions are at 5.02 TeV. The different colors represent efficiencies reached for successive application of the listed selection criteria: ratio of HCAL over ECAL energies $ H/E < $ 0.1, EM shower shape variable $ \sigma_{\eta\eta} < $ 0.01, isolation variable $ I < $ 1 GeV, and electron rejection criterion. (Figure adapted from Ref. [131].)

png pdf
Figure 9:
Left: Distribution of PF pseudotowers in $ \eta$-$\phi $ in a single central (top 3%) event in PbPb collisions before subtraction, with the $ z $ axis showing the corresponding tower energy per unit tower area. Right: The same event after full subtraction with flow modulation is applied. (Figure adapted from Ref. [134].)

png pdf
Figure 10:
Distribution of $ \rho $, the UE energy per unit area, as a function of centrality, found using the central-$ \eta $ strip of PF pseudotowers. (Figure adapted from Ref. [134].)

png pdf
Figure 11:
Performance of jet reconstruction in the HI environment for jet distance parameters of $ R= $ 0.2 (left) and $ R= $ 1.0 (right). The jet energy scale is shown in the upper panels, while the jet energy resolution is plotted in the lower panels. (Figure adapted from Ref. [139].)

png pdf
Figure 12:
Multiplicity distribution of the b-tagged jets in a top quark pair enriched final state using PbPb collisions. The distribution of the main background is taken from the data. Backgrounds and $ \mathrm{t} \overline{\mathrm{t}} $ signal are shown with the filled histograms and data are shown with the markers. The vertical bars on the markers represent the statistical uncertainties in data. The hatched regions show the uncertainties in the sum of $ \mathrm{t} \overline{\mathrm{t}} $ signal and backgrounds. The lower panel displays the ratio of the data to the predictions with bands representing the uncertainties in the predictions. (Figure adapted from Ref. [146].)

png pdf
Figure 13:
The differential cross sections (left) and forward-backward ratio for decay muon yields (right) for the process $ \mathrm{W^+}\to\mu^{+}\nu_{\!\mu} $ versus muon pseudorapidity in the center-of-mass frame ($ \eta_{\mathrm{CM}} $). Black horizontal lines above and below the data points represent the quadrature sum of statistical and systematic uncertainties, whereas the vertical bars show the statistical uncertainties only. The NLO calculations with CT14 PDF, and CT14+nCTEQ15 and CT14+EPPS16 nPDFs are displayed, including their 68% confidence interval uncertainty bands. The ratios of data, CT14+nCTEQ15 and CT14+EPPS16 with respect to CT14 are shown in the lower left panel. A global integrated luminosity uncertainty of 3.5% in the cross section is not shown. (Figure compiled from Ref. [150].)

png pdf
Figure 13-a:
The differential cross sections (left) and forward-backward ratio for decay muon yields (right) for the process $ \mathrm{W^+}\to\mu^{+}\nu_{\!\mu} $ versus muon pseudorapidity in the center-of-mass frame ($ \eta_{\mathrm{CM}} $). Black horizontal lines above and below the data points represent the quadrature sum of statistical and systematic uncertainties, whereas the vertical bars show the statistical uncertainties only. The NLO calculations with CT14 PDF, and CT14+nCTEQ15 and CT14+EPPS16 nPDFs are displayed, including their 68% confidence interval uncertainty bands. The ratios of data, CT14+nCTEQ15 and CT14+EPPS16 with respect to CT14 are shown in the lower left panel. A global integrated luminosity uncertainty of 3.5% in the cross section is not shown. (Figure compiled from Ref. [150].)

png pdf
Figure 13-b:
The differential cross sections (left) and forward-backward ratio for decay muon yields (right) for the process $ \mathrm{W^+}\to\mu^{+}\nu_{\!\mu} $ versus muon pseudorapidity in the center-of-mass frame ($ \eta_{\mathrm{CM}} $). Black horizontal lines above and below the data points represent the quadrature sum of statistical and systematic uncertainties, whereas the vertical bars show the statistical uncertainties only. The NLO calculations with CT14 PDF, and CT14+nCTEQ15 and CT14+EPPS16 nPDFs are displayed, including their 68% confidence interval uncertainty bands. The ratios of data, CT14+nCTEQ15 and CT14+EPPS16 with respect to CT14 are shown in the lower left panel. A global integrated luminosity uncertainty of 3.5% in the cross section is not shown. (Figure compiled from Ref. [150].)

png pdf
Figure 14:
Differential cross section for the Drell-Yan process measured in the muon channel as a function of the dimuon invariant mass (upper) and the forward-backward ratios for 15 $ < m_{\mu^{+}\mu^{-}} < $ 60 GeV (lower left) and 60 $ < m_{\mu^{+}\mu^{-}} < $ 120 GeV (lower right). Error bars represent the total measurement uncertainty. Theory predictions from the POWHEG NLO generator using the CT14 PDF (blue), or the CT14+EPPS16 (red) or CT14+nCTEQ15WZ (green) nPDF sets are shown. The standard deviation of the nPDF uncertainties are shown by the boxes. Ratios of theory predictions over data are shown in the lower panels. (Figures adapted from Ref. [161].)

png pdf
Figure 14-a:
Differential cross section for the Drell-Yan process measured in the muon channel as a function of the dimuon invariant mass (upper) and the forward-backward ratios for 15 $ < m_{\mu^{+}\mu^{-}} < $ 60 GeV (lower left) and 60 $ < m_{\mu^{+}\mu^{-}} < $ 120 GeV (lower right). Error bars represent the total measurement uncertainty. Theory predictions from the POWHEG NLO generator using the CT14 PDF (blue), or the CT14+EPPS16 (red) or CT14+nCTEQ15WZ (green) nPDF sets are shown. The standard deviation of the nPDF uncertainties are shown by the boxes. Ratios of theory predictions over data are shown in the lower panels. (Figures adapted from Ref. [161].)

png pdf
Figure 14-b:
Differential cross section for the Drell-Yan process measured in the muon channel as a function of the dimuon invariant mass (upper) and the forward-backward ratios for 15 $ < m_{\mu^{+}\mu^{-}} < $ 60 GeV (lower left) and 60 $ < m_{\mu^{+}\mu^{-}} < $ 120 GeV (lower right). Error bars represent the total measurement uncertainty. Theory predictions from the POWHEG NLO generator using the CT14 PDF (blue), or the CT14+EPPS16 (red) or CT14+nCTEQ15WZ (green) nPDF sets are shown. The standard deviation of the nPDF uncertainties are shown by the boxes. Ratios of theory predictions over data are shown in the lower panels. (Figures adapted from Ref. [161].)

png pdf
Figure 14-c:
Differential cross section for the Drell-Yan process measured in the muon channel as a function of the dimuon invariant mass (upper) and the forward-backward ratios for 15 $ < m_{\mu^{+}\mu^{-}} < $ 60 GeV (lower left) and 60 $ < m_{\mu^{+}\mu^{-}} < $ 120 GeV (lower right). Error bars represent the total measurement uncertainty. Theory predictions from the POWHEG NLO generator using the CT14 PDF (blue), or the CT14+EPPS16 (red) or CT14+nCTEQ15WZ (green) nPDF sets are shown. The standard deviation of the nPDF uncertainties are shown by the boxes. Ratios of theory predictions over data are shown in the lower panels. (Figures adapted from Ref. [161].)

png pdf
Figure 15:
Top quark pair production cross section in pp and pPb collisions as a function of the center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair; the CMS results at different center-of-mass energies in the dilepton and semileptonic channels. The measurements are compared to the NNLO+NNLL QCD theory predictions [167,168,169]. (Figure adapted from Ref. [166].)

png pdf
Figure 16:
The ratio of the dijet $ \eta $ spectra for pPb and pp data in a selection of $ p_\mathrm{T}^{\text{ave}} $ ranges. Theoretical predictions are from the NLO pQCD calculations of DSSZ [170] and EPS09 [171] are shown. Red boxes and bars indicate the systematic and statistical uncertainties in data, respectively. Green and blue boxes represent nPDF uncertainties. (Figure adapted from Ref. [172].)

png pdf
Figure 17:
The ratio of theoretical predictions to CMS data for the ratio of the pPb to pp dijet $ \eta $ spectra for 115 $ < p_\mathrm{T}^{\text{ave}} < $ 150 GeV. Theoretical predictions are from the NLO pQCD calculations of DSSZ [170], EPS09 [171], nCTEQ15 [154], and EPPS16 [153] nPDFs, using CT14 [152] as the baseline PDFs. Red boxes indicate the total uncertainties in data and the error bars on the points represent nPDF uncertainties. (Figure adapted from Ref. [172].)

png pdf
Figure 18:
The photon $ R_{\mathrm{AA}} $ versus photon $ E_{\mathrm{T}}^{\gamma} $ in four centrality ranges for 5.02 TeV PbPb collisions. The error bars indicate the statistical uncertainties and the systematic uncertainty, excluding $ T_{\mathrm{AA}} $ uncertainties, are shown by the colored boxes. The $ T_{\mathrm{AA}} $ uncertainties are common to all points in a given centrality range, and are indicated by a gray box on the left side of each panel. Similarly, a 2.3% pp collision integrated luminosity uncertainty is shown with a brown box. (Figure adapted from Ref. [131].)

png pdf
Figure 19:
Normalized yields (per $ \mathrm{NN} $ integrated luminosity and per unit rapidity) of $ \mathrm{W}\to\mu\nu $ production in 2.76 TeV PbPb collisions, shown for inclusive W (red), $ \mathrm{W^+} $ (violet), and $ \mathrm{W^-} $ (green). The open symbols at $ N_\text{part}= $ 120 represent values for MB collisions. At $ N_\text{part} = $ 2 the corresponding cross sections, divided by the muon pseudorapidity acceptance $ \Delta\eta $, for pp collisions at the same energy are displayed. For clarity the $ \mathrm{W^+} $ and $ \mathrm{W^-} $ points are slightly shifted horizontally. Error bars represent statistical uncertainties and horizontal lines show systematic uncertainties. (Figure adapted from Ref. [177].)

png pdf
Figure 20:
The $ T_{\mathrm{AA}} $-normalized yields of Z bosons versus centrality for 5.02 TeV PbPb collisions. The error bars, open boxes, and solid gray boxes represent the statistical, systematic, and $ T_{\mathrm{AA}} $ uncertainties, respectively. The value of the 0-90% data (pink) and the scaled HG-PYTHIA model (green) are displayed. The width of the bands represents the contribution from the total 0-90% data point uncertainty. (Figure adapted from Ref. [179].)

png pdf
Figure 21:
A comparison of results from the ALICE [182], ATLAS [181], and CMS [179] Collaborations for Z and W production in PbPb collisions. The data have been normalized so that the most central data point equals unity to enable comparison of the shape of the distribution. The left (right) panel shows data for $ \mathrm{W^-} $ ($ \mathrm{W^+} $) and Z bosons. For the ATLAS W data, the error bars represent the combined statistical and systematic uncertainty, while the boxes show $ T_{\mathrm{AA}} $-related uncertainties. For all other data sets, the error bars display statistical uncertainties and the boxes show combined systematic and $ T_{\mathrm{AA}} $ uncertainties.

png pdf
Figure 21-a:
A comparison of results from the ALICE [182], ATLAS [181], and CMS [179] Collaborations for Z and W production in PbPb collisions. The data have been normalized so that the most central data point equals unity to enable comparison of the shape of the distribution. The left (right) panel shows data for $ \mathrm{W^-} $ ($ \mathrm{W^+} $) and Z bosons. For the ATLAS W data, the error bars represent the combined statistical and systematic uncertainty, while the boxes show $ T_{\mathrm{AA}} $-related uncertainties. For all other data sets, the error bars display statistical uncertainties and the boxes show combined systematic and $ T_{\mathrm{AA}} $ uncertainties.

png pdf
Figure 21-b:
A comparison of results from the ALICE [182], ATLAS [181], and CMS [179] Collaborations for Z and W production in PbPb collisions. The data have been normalized so that the most central data point equals unity to enable comparison of the shape of the distribution. The left (right) panel shows data for $ \mathrm{W^-} $ ($ \mathrm{W^+} $) and Z bosons. For the ATLAS W data, the error bars represent the combined statistical and systematic uncertainty, while the boxes show $ T_{\mathrm{AA}} $-related uncertainties. For all other data sets, the error bars display statistical uncertainties and the boxes show combined systematic and $ T_{\mathrm{AA}} $ uncertainties.

png pdf
Figure 22:
Forward jet differential cross section, where forward jet is in the proton-going direction, as a function of jet energy in pPb collisions at 5.02 TeV. The kinematics of the collision allows to probe the small-$ x $ wave function in the Pb nucleus with a high-$ x $ parton from the proton. This measurement is compared with different Monte Carlo event generators, EPOS-LHC [118], HIJING [119], and QGSJETII-04 [189] (left) and predictions of the KATIE [190] and AAMQS [191] saturation models (right). (Figures adapted from Ref. [192].)

png pdf
Figure 22-a:
Forward jet differential cross section, where forward jet is in the proton-going direction, as a function of jet energy in pPb collisions at 5.02 TeV. The kinematics of the collision allows to probe the small-$ x $ wave function in the Pb nucleus with a high-$ x $ parton from the proton. This measurement is compared with different Monte Carlo event generators, EPOS-LHC [118], HIJING [119], and QGSJETII-04 [189] (left) and predictions of the KATIE [190] and AAMQS [191] saturation models (right). (Figures adapted from Ref. [192].)

png pdf
Figure 22-b:
Forward jet differential cross section, where forward jet is in the proton-going direction, as a function of jet energy in pPb collisions at 5.02 TeV. The kinematics of the collision allows to probe the small-$ x $ wave function in the Pb nucleus with a high-$ x $ parton from the proton. This measurement is compared with different Monte Carlo event generators, EPOS-LHC [118], HIJING [119], and QGSJETII-04 [189] (left) and predictions of the KATIE [190] and AAMQS [191] saturation models (right). (Figures adapted from Ref. [192].)

png pdf
Figure 23:
(Left) Forward jet differential cross section, where the forward jet is in the Pb-going direction, as a function of the jet energy in pPb collisions at 5.02 TeV. The kinematic properties of the collision probe the small-$ x $ wave function of the proton with a high-$ x $ parton from the Pb nucleus. The data are compared with different Monte Carlo event generators: EPOS-LHC [118], HIJING [119], and QGSJETII-04 [189]. (Right) The ratio of the inclusive jet cross sections; the numerator (denominator) of the ratio corresponds to the case where the jet is measured in the proton-going (Pb-going) direction. (Figure adapted from Ref. [192].)

png pdf
Figure 23-a:
(Left) Forward jet differential cross section, where the forward jet is in the Pb-going direction, as a function of the jet energy in pPb collisions at 5.02 TeV. The kinematic properties of the collision probe the small-$ x $ wave function of the proton with a high-$ x $ parton from the Pb nucleus. The data are compared with different Monte Carlo event generators: EPOS-LHC [118], HIJING [119], and QGSJETII-04 [189]. (Right) The ratio of the inclusive jet cross sections; the numerator (denominator) of the ratio corresponds to the case where the jet is measured in the proton-going (Pb-going) direction. (Figure adapted from Ref. [192].)

png pdf
Figure 23-b:
(Left) Forward jet differential cross section, where the forward jet is in the Pb-going direction, as a function of the jet energy in pPb collisions at 5.02 TeV. The kinematic properties of the collision probe the small-$ x $ wave function of the proton with a high-$ x $ parton from the Pb nucleus. The data are compared with different Monte Carlo event generators: EPOS-LHC [118], HIJING [119], and QGSJETII-04 [189]. (Right) The ratio of the inclusive jet cross sections; the numerator (denominator) of the ratio corresponds to the case where the jet is measured in the proton-going (Pb-going) direction. (Figure adapted from Ref. [192].)

png pdf
Figure 24:
Forward jet differential cross section, where the forward jet is in the $ \mathrm{p} $-going direction, as a function of the jet energy in pPb collisions at 5.02 TeV. The kinematics of the collision allows to probe the small-$ x $ wave function of the Pb nucleus with a high-$ x $ parton from the proton. The data points are from Ref. [193]. (Figure adapted from Ref. [192].)

png pdf
Figure 25:
The cross section in the $ {\gamma\mathrm{p}} $ center-of-mass frame $ \sigma(\gamma^{*}\mathrm{p} \to \rho(770)^0 \mathrm{p}) $ for exclusive $ \rho(770)^0 $ VM photoproduction as a function of $ W_{{\gamma\mathrm{p}}} $. CMS measurements during Run 2 extend up to $ W_{{\gamma\mathrm{p}}} = $ 1 TeV. The CMS data points are from Ref. [199]. The H1 and ZEUS data in electron-proton collisions are shown in the same panel. The data points are compared to predictions from PYTHIA8 [112] and STARLIGHT [110]. (Figure adapted from Ref. [199].)

png pdf
Figure 26:
Photoproduction cross section in the photon-proton center-of-mass frame $ \sigma(\gamma^* \mathrm{p} \to \Upsilon{\textrm{(1S)}} \mathrm{p}) $ for exclusive $ \Upsilon{\textrm{(1S)}} $ VM photoproduction as a function of $ W_{{\gamma\mathrm{p}}} $. The data are compared with different calculations with different implementations of nonlinear evolution in the parton distributions. (Figure adapted from Ref. [198].)

png pdf
Figure 27:
Differential $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ meson photoproduction cross section as a function of rapidity in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV measured by ALICE [201,202] and CMS [203]. Data are compared with the leading twist [204] and the impulse approximation [204,205] predictions. The leading twist approximation is a perturbative QCD calculation that takes into account nuclear shadowing effects from multinucleon interference. (Figure adapted from Ref. [203].)

png pdf
Figure 28:
The left panel shows the correlation between energy distributions of the Minus and Plus ZDC detectors (one entry per event), while the right panel shows a multi-Gaussian function fit to the Minus ZDC energy distribution. The different ``peaks'' in the ZDC energy distribution can be assigned to different forward neutron multiplicities, the first peak is detector noise, which corresponds to no detected neutrons, the second peak can be associated with one neutron, and so on. (Figures adapted from Ref. [208].)

png pdf
Figure 29:
The differential coherent $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ meson photoproduction cross section as a function of rapidity, in different neutron multiplicity classes (left): 0 $ \mathrm{n}0\mathrm{n} $, 0 $ \mathrm{n}\mathrm{X}\mathrm{n} $ and $ \mathrm{X}\mathrm{n}\mathrm{X}\mathrm{n} $ ($ \mathrm{X} \geq $ 1); (right): $ \mathrm{A}\mathrm{n}\mathrm{A}\mathrm{n} $ (inclusive in the number of neutrons detected in the ZDC). The small vertical bars and shaded boxes represent the statistical and systematic uncertainties, respectively. The horizontal bars represent the bin widths. Theoretical predictions from LTA weak/strong shadowing [206], color dipole models (CD_BGK, CD_BGW, and CD_IIM) [211], and STARLIGHT [110] are shown. (Figures adapted from Ref. [210].)

png pdf
Figure 29-a:
The differential coherent $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ meson photoproduction cross section as a function of rapidity, in different neutron multiplicity classes (left): 0 $ \mathrm{n}0\mathrm{n} $, 0 $ \mathrm{n}\mathrm{X}\mathrm{n} $ and $ \mathrm{X}\mathrm{n}\mathrm{X}\mathrm{n} $ ($ \mathrm{X} \geq $ 1); (right): $ \mathrm{A}\mathrm{n}\mathrm{A}\mathrm{n} $ (inclusive in the number of neutrons detected in the ZDC). The small vertical bars and shaded boxes represent the statistical and systematic uncertainties, respectively. The horizontal bars represent the bin widths. Theoretical predictions from LTA weak/strong shadowing [206], color dipole models (CD_BGK, CD_BGW, and CD_IIM) [211], and STARLIGHT [110] are shown. (Figures adapted from Ref. [210].)

png pdf
Figure 29-b:
The differential coherent $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ meson photoproduction cross section as a function of rapidity, in different neutron multiplicity classes (left): 0 $ \mathrm{n}0\mathrm{n} $, 0 $ \mathrm{n}\mathrm{X}\mathrm{n} $ and $ \mathrm{X}\mathrm{n}\mathrm{X}\mathrm{n} $ ($ \mathrm{X} \geq $ 1); (right): $ \mathrm{A}\mathrm{n}\mathrm{A}\mathrm{n} $ (inclusive in the number of neutrons detected in the ZDC). The small vertical bars and shaded boxes represent the statistical and systematic uncertainties, respectively. The horizontal bars represent the bin widths. Theoretical predictions from LTA weak/strong shadowing [206], color dipole models (CD_BGK, CD_BGW, and CD_IIM) [211], and STARLIGHT [110] are shown. (Figures adapted from Ref. [210].)

png pdf
Figure 30:
Total coherent $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ meson photoproduction cross section as a function of $ W^{\mathrm{Pb}}_{\gamma\mathrm{N}} $ in PbPb UPCs at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV. The vertical bars and the shaded and open boxes represent the statistical, experimental, and theoretical (photon flux) uncertainties, respectively. The predictions from various theoretical calculations [204,213,214,206,215,211] are shown by the curves. (Figure adapted from Ref. [210].)

png pdf
Figure 31:
The $ (\mathrm{d}N_{\text{ch}}/\mathrm{d}\eta)/(N_\text{part}/2) $ in 2.76 TeV PbPb (Figure adapted from Ref. [106].) (left) and 5.44 TeV XeXe collisions (figure from Ref. [221]) (middle), and $ \mathrm{d}E_{\mathrm{T}}/\mathrm{d}\eta $ in 2.76 TeV PbPb collisions (figure from Ref. [222]) (right) distributions as functions of $ \eta $ in various centrality bins. The inner green band in the left panel shows the measurement uncertainties affecting the scale of the measured distribution, while the outer gray band shows the full systematic uncertainty, i.e., affecting both the scale and the slope.

png pdf
Figure 31-a:
The $ (\mathrm{d}N_{\text{ch}}/\mathrm{d}\eta)/(N_\text{part}/2) $ in 2.76 TeV PbPb (Figure adapted from Ref. [106].) (left) and 5.44 TeV XeXe collisions (figure from Ref. [221]) (middle), and $ \mathrm{d}E_{\mathrm{T}}/\mathrm{d}\eta $ in 2.76 TeV PbPb collisions (figure from Ref. [222]) (right) distributions as functions of $ \eta $ in various centrality bins. The inner green band in the left panel shows the measurement uncertainties affecting the scale of the measured distribution, while the outer gray band shows the full systematic uncertainty, i.e., affecting both the scale and the slope.

png pdf
Figure 31-b:
The $ (\mathrm{d}N_{\text{ch}}/\mathrm{d}\eta)/(N_\text{part}/2) $ in 2.76 TeV PbPb (Figure adapted from Ref. [106].) (left) and 5.44 TeV XeXe collisions (figure from Ref. [221]) (middle), and $ \mathrm{d}E_{\mathrm{T}}/\mathrm{d}\eta $ in 2.76 TeV PbPb collisions (figure from Ref. [222]) (right) distributions as functions of $ \eta $ in various centrality bins. The inner green band in the left panel shows the measurement uncertainties affecting the scale of the measured distribution, while the outer gray band shows the full systematic uncertainty, i.e., affecting both the scale and the slope.

png pdf
Figure 31-c:
The $ (\mathrm{d}N_{\text{ch}}/\mathrm{d}\eta)/(N_\text{part}/2) $ in 2.76 TeV PbPb (Figure adapted from Ref. [106].) (left) and 5.44 TeV XeXe collisions (figure from Ref. [221]) (middle), and $ \mathrm{d}E_{\mathrm{T}}/\mathrm{d}\eta $ in 2.76 TeV PbPb collisions (figure from Ref. [222]) (right) distributions as functions of $ \eta $ in various centrality bins. The inner green band in the left panel shows the measurement uncertainties affecting the scale of the measured distribution, while the outer gray band shows the full systematic uncertainty, i.e., affecting both the scale and the slope.

png pdf
Figure 32:
Average $ \mathrm{d}N_{\text{ch}}/\mathrm{d}\eta $\ at midrapidity normalised by $ \langle N_\text{part}\rangle $, shown as a function of $ \langle N_\text{part}\rangle $ (left) and $ \langle N_\text{part}\rangle/2A $ (right), where $ A $ is the mass number of the nuclei. (Figures adapted from Ref. [221].)

png pdf
Figure 32-a:
Average $ \mathrm{d}N_{\text{ch}}/\mathrm{d}\eta $\ at midrapidity normalised by $ \langle N_\text{part}\rangle $, shown as a function of $ \langle N_\text{part}\rangle $ (left) and $ \langle N_\text{part}\rangle/2A $ (right), where $ A $ is the mass number of the nuclei. (Figures adapted from Ref. [221].)

png pdf
Figure 32-b:
Average $ \mathrm{d}N_{\text{ch}}/\mathrm{d}\eta $\ at midrapidity normalised by $ \langle N_\text{part}\rangle $, shown as a function of $ \langle N_\text{part}\rangle $ (left) and $ \langle N_\text{part}\rangle/2A $ (right), where $ A $ is the mass number of the nuclei. (Figures adapted from Ref. [221].)

png pdf
Figure 33:
Normalized charged-particle pseudorapidity (left, figure adapted from Ref. [106]) and transverse energy density (right, figure adapted from Ref. [222]) at $ \eta= $ 0 as functions of center-of-mass energy, from various experiments. The fits to power-law functions are shown by lines.

png pdf
Figure 33-a:
Normalized charged-particle pseudorapidity (left, figure adapted from Ref. [106]) and transverse energy density (right, figure adapted from Ref. [222]) at $ \eta= $ 0 as functions of center-of-mass energy, from various experiments. The fits to power-law functions are shown by lines.

png pdf
Figure 33-b:
Normalized charged-particle pseudorapidity (left, figure adapted from Ref. [106]) and transverse energy density (right, figure adapted from Ref. [222]) at $ \eta= $ 0 as functions of center-of-mass energy, from various experiments. The fits to power-law functions are shown by lines.

png pdf
Figure 34:
The 2D (left) and 1D $ \Delta\phi $\ (right) two-particle correlation functions for 1 $ < p_{\mathrm{T}} < $ 3 GeV in 0-0.2% central PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV. (Figures adapted from Ref. [233].)

png pdf
Figure 35:
Left: the $ v_2 $ to $ v_6 $ values as functions of $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ in 0-0.2% central PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV. Right: Comparison of $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $-integrated (0.3-3.0 GeV) $ v_{n} $ data with VISH2+1D hydrodynamic calculations for Glauber initial condition with $ \eta/s= $ 0.08 (blue) and MC-KLN initial condition with $ \eta/s= $ 0.2 (green), in 0-0.2% central PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV. Error bars denote the statistical uncertainties, while the shaded color bands correspond to the systematic uncertainties. (Figures adapted from Ref. [233].)

png pdf
Figure 35-a:
Left: the $ v_2 $ to $ v_6 $ values as functions of $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ in 0-0.2% central PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV. Right: Comparison of $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $-integrated (0.3-3.0 GeV) $ v_{n} $ data with VISH2+1D hydrodynamic calculations for Glauber initial condition with $ \eta/s= $ 0.08 (blue) and MC-KLN initial condition with $ \eta/s= $ 0.2 (green), in 0-0.2% central PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV. Error bars denote the statistical uncertainties, while the shaded color bands correspond to the systematic uncertainties. (Figures adapted from Ref. [233].)

png pdf
Figure 35-b:
Left: the $ v_2 $ to $ v_6 $ values as functions of $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ in 0-0.2% central PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV. Right: Comparison of $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $-integrated (0.3-3.0 GeV) $ v_{n} $ data with VISH2+1D hydrodynamic calculations for Glauber initial condition with $ \eta/s= $ 0.08 (blue) and MC-KLN initial condition with $ \eta/s= $ 0.2 (green), in 0-0.2% central PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV. Error bars denote the statistical uncertainties, while the shaded color bands correspond to the systematic uncertainties. (Figures adapted from Ref. [233].)

png pdf
Figure 36:
Representative final unfolded $ p(v_2) $ distributions (closed black circles) in three centrality bins (15-20%, 30-35%, and 55-60%). Respective observed $ p(v_2^\text{obs}) $ distributions (open black squares) are shown to illustrate the statistical resolution present in each centrality bin prior to unfolding. Distributions are fitted with Bessel-Gaussian and elliptic power functions to infer information on the underlying $ p(\varepsilon_2) $ distributions. (Figure adapted from Ref. [235].)

png pdf
Figure 37:
Centrality dependence of the $ v_2 $, $ v_3 $, and $ v_4 $ harmonic coefficients from two-particle correlations method for 0.3 $ < p_{\mathrm{T}} < $ 3.0 GeV for $ \mathrm{Xe}\mathrm{Xe} $ collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 5.44 TeV and PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV. The lower panels show the ratio of the results for the two systems. Theoretical predictions from Ref. [243] are compared to the data. The model calculation is done for the $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ range 0.2 $ < p_{\mathrm{T}} < $ 5.0 GeV. (Figure adapted from Ref. [244].)

png pdf
Figure 38:
The $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $-dependent factorization ratios, $ r_2 $ and $ r_3 $, as functions of event multiplicity in pPb and PbPb collisions. The lines represent different hydrodynamics calculations. (Figure adapted from Ref. [234].)

png pdf
Figure 39:
The $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $-dependent factorization ratios, $ r_2(p_{\mathrm{T}}) $, in very central (0-0.2% centrality) PbPb collisions. The lines represent hydrodynamics calculations for different initial conditions and different values of $ \eta/s $. (Figure adapted from Ref. [234].)

png pdf
Figure 40:
Left: illustration of flow event plane decorrelations as functions of rapidity in the wounded nucleon picture (or ``torqued QGP fireball'') [249] and 3D color glass condensate model [250]. Right: measurement of elliptic flow decorrelations as functions of pseudorapidity in 0-5% central PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV from CMS [234], with comparison to theoretical calculations [249,250].

png pdf
Figure 41:
The $ {F}^{{\eta}}_{\mathrm{n}} $ parameter as a function of event multiplicity in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 2.76 TeV for $ n= $ 2-4 and pPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV for $ n= $ 2. (Figure adapted from Ref. [234].)

png pdf
Figure 42:
Nonlinear-response coefficients, $ \chi_{422} $, $ \chi_{523} $, $ \chi_{6222} $, $ \chi_{633} $, and $ \chi_{7223} $ at 2.76 and 5.02 TeV, as functions of centrality. The results are compared with predictions from a hydrodynamics $ + $ hadronic cascade hybrid approach with the IP-Glasma initial conditions using $ \eta/s = $ 0.095 [257] at 5.02 TeV and from iEBE-VISHNU hydrodynamics with the KLN initial conditions using $ \eta/s = $ 0, 0.08, and 0.2 [252] at 2.76 TeV. (Figure adapted from Ref. [258].)

png pdf
Figure 43:
Left: Illustration of a typical BEC as functions of $ q_\text{inv} $, for pp collisions at 13 TeV, for opposite-sign pairs (no BEC), used to estimate the background contribution, and for same-sign pairs, together with the fits to both cases. (Figure adapted from Ref. [268].) Middle: Results for femtoscopic correlations of unidentified charged hadrons from pp collisions at various LHC energies and in different multiplicity ranges. (Figures adapted from Refs. [266,267,268].) Right: The plot shows results for identified pions (filled markers) and kaons (open markers) for different colliding systems and at several LHC energies. The error bars correspond to the statistical uncertainties, the colored boxes to the systematic uncertainties. The lines are cubic spline interpolations, added to guide the eye. (Figure adapted from Ref. [267].)

png pdf
Figure 43-a:
Left: Illustration of a typical BEC as functions of $ q_\text{inv} $, for pp collisions at 13 TeV, for opposite-sign pairs (no BEC), used to estimate the background contribution, and for same-sign pairs, together with the fits to both cases. (Figure adapted from Ref. [268].) Middle: Results for femtoscopic correlations of unidentified charged hadrons from pp collisions at various LHC energies and in different multiplicity ranges. (Figures adapted from Refs. [266,267,268].) Right: The plot shows results for identified pions (filled markers) and kaons (open markers) for different colliding systems and at several LHC energies. The error bars correspond to the statistical uncertainties, the colored boxes to the systematic uncertainties. The lines are cubic spline interpolations, added to guide the eye. (Figure adapted from Ref. [267].)

png pdf
Figure 43-b:
Left: Illustration of a typical BEC as functions of $ q_\text{inv} $, for pp collisions at 13 TeV, for opposite-sign pairs (no BEC), used to estimate the background contribution, and for same-sign pairs, together with the fits to both cases. (Figure adapted from Ref. [268].) Middle: Results for femtoscopic correlations of unidentified charged hadrons from pp collisions at various LHC energies and in different multiplicity ranges. (Figures adapted from Refs. [266,267,268].) Right: The plot shows results for identified pions (filled markers) and kaons (open markers) for different colliding systems and at several LHC energies. The error bars correspond to the statistical uncertainties, the colored boxes to the systematic uncertainties. The lines are cubic spline interpolations, added to guide the eye. (Figure adapted from Ref. [267].)

png pdf
Figure 43-c:
Left: Illustration of a typical BEC as functions of $ q_\text{inv} $, for pp collisions at 13 TeV, for opposite-sign pairs (no BEC), used to estimate the background contribution, and for same-sign pairs, together with the fits to both cases. (Figure adapted from Ref. [268].) Middle: Results for femtoscopic correlations of unidentified charged hadrons from pp collisions at various LHC energies and in different multiplicity ranges. (Figures adapted from Refs. [266,267,268].) Right: The plot shows results for identified pions (filled markers) and kaons (open markers) for different colliding systems and at several LHC energies. The error bars correspond to the statistical uncertainties, the colored boxes to the systematic uncertainties. The lines are cubic spline interpolations, added to guide the eye. (Figure adapted from Ref. [267].)

png pdf
Figure 44:
Left: Results for $ R_\text{inv} $ are shown as a function of $ k_{\mathrm{T}} $ for pp collisions at different energies and multiplicity ranges. (Figures adapted from Refs. [267,268].) Right: Similarly, $ R_\text{inv} $ values versus $ k_{\mathrm{T}} $ are shown for pPb collisions at 5.02 TeV. The error bars correspond to the statistical uncertainties, the colored boxes to the systematic uncertainties. The lines are cubic spline interpolations, added to guide the eye. (Figure adapted from Ref. [267].)

png pdf
Figure 44-a:
Left: Results for $ R_\text{inv} $ are shown as a function of $ k_{\mathrm{T}} $ for pp collisions at different energies and multiplicity ranges. (Figures adapted from Refs. [267,268].) Right: Similarly, $ R_\text{inv} $ values versus $ k_{\mathrm{T}} $ are shown for pPb collisions at 5.02 TeV. The error bars correspond to the statistical uncertainties, the colored boxes to the systematic uncertainties. The lines are cubic spline interpolations, added to guide the eye. (Figure adapted from Ref. [267].)

png pdf
Figure 44-b:
Left: Results for $ R_\text{inv} $ are shown as a function of $ k_{\mathrm{T}} $ for pp collisions at different energies and multiplicity ranges. (Figures adapted from Refs. [267,268].) Right: Similarly, $ R_\text{inv} $ values versus $ k_{\mathrm{T}} $ are shown for pPb collisions at 5.02 TeV. The error bars correspond to the statistical uncertainties, the colored boxes to the systematic uncertainties. The lines are cubic spline interpolations, added to guide the eye. (Figure adapted from Ref. [267].)

png pdf
Figure 45:
Left: The femtoscopic Bertsch-Pratt radius components in different directions, ($ R_\text{S} $, $ R_\text{L} $, $ R_\text{O} $), are shown as functions of multiplicity for charged hadrons from pp collisions at 7 TeV. Middle: The three variables are shown for pions from the pPb and PbPb systems at 2.76 TeV and 5.02 TeV, respectively. The lines are cubic spline interpolations, added to guide the eye. A similar tendency of increasing radius parameters with multiplicity is seen in each of the three directions, for all cases. Right: The variation of these components with $ k_{\mathrm{T}} $ is also shown for charged hadrons from pp collisions at 7 TeV. (All three figures were adapted from Ref. [267]).

png pdf
Figure 45-a:
Left: The femtoscopic Bertsch-Pratt radius components in different directions, ($ R_\text{S} $, $ R_\text{L} $, $ R_\text{O} $), are shown as functions of multiplicity for charged hadrons from pp collisions at 7 TeV. Middle: The three variables are shown for pions from the pPb and PbPb systems at 2.76 TeV and 5.02 TeV, respectively. The lines are cubic spline interpolations, added to guide the eye. A similar tendency of increasing radius parameters with multiplicity is seen in each of the three directions, for all cases. Right: The variation of these components with $ k_{\mathrm{T}} $ is also shown for charged hadrons from pp collisions at 7 TeV. (All three figures were adapted from Ref. [267]).

png pdf
Figure 45-b:
Left: The femtoscopic Bertsch-Pratt radius components in different directions, ($ R_\text{S} $, $ R_\text{L} $, $ R_\text{O} $), are shown as functions of multiplicity for charged hadrons from pp collisions at 7 TeV. Middle: The three variables are shown for pions from the pPb and PbPb systems at 2.76 TeV and 5.02 TeV, respectively. The lines are cubic spline interpolations, added to guide the eye. A similar tendency of increasing radius parameters with multiplicity is seen in each of the three directions, for all cases. Right: The variation of these components with $ k_{\mathrm{T}} $ is also shown for charged hadrons from pp collisions at 7 TeV. (All three figures were adapted from Ref. [267]).

png pdf
Figure 45-c:
Left: The femtoscopic Bertsch-Pratt radius components in different directions, ($ R_\text{S} $, $ R_\text{L} $, $ R_\text{O} $), are shown as functions of multiplicity for charged hadrons from pp collisions at 7 TeV. Middle: The three variables are shown for pions from the pPb and PbPb systems at 2.76 TeV and 5.02 TeV, respectively. The lines are cubic spline interpolations, added to guide the eye. A similar tendency of increasing radius parameters with multiplicity is seen in each of the three directions, for all cases. Right: The variation of these components with $ k_{\mathrm{T}} $ is also shown for charged hadrons from pp collisions at 7 TeV. (All three figures were adapted from Ref. [267]).

png pdf
Figure 46:
Left: Event geometry of one peripheral PbPb and one central pPb event using MC Glauber simulation at at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}\ = $ 5.02 TeV. The red and black arrows point in the direction of the reaction and participant plane angle, respectively. Right: The cosine of the relative angle between the reaction plane and the participant plane. (Figures adapted from Ref. [299].)

png pdf
Figure 47:
Left: the difference of the opposite sign (OS) and same sign (SS) three-particle correlators as a function of $ N_\text{trk}^\text{offline} $ in pPb and PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV. (Figure adapted from Ref. [299].) Right: ratio of $ \Delta\gamma_{112} $ and $ \Delta\gamma_{123} $ to the product of $ v_{n} $ and $ \delta $ in pPb collisions for the Pb-going direction at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV and PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV. (Figure adapted from Ref. [301].)

png pdf
Figure 47-a:
Left: the difference of the opposite sign (OS) and same sign (SS) three-particle correlators as a function of $ N_\text{trk}^\text{offline} $ in pPb and PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV. (Figure adapted from Ref. [299].) Right: ratio of $ \Delta\gamma_{112} $ and $ \Delta\gamma_{123} $ to the product of $ v_{n} $ and $ \delta $ in pPb collisions for the Pb-going direction at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV and PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV. (Figure adapted from Ref. [301].)

png pdf
Figure 47-b:
Left: the difference of the opposite sign (OS) and same sign (SS) three-particle correlators as a function of $ N_\text{trk}^\text{offline} $ in pPb and PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV. (Figure adapted from Ref. [299].) Right: ratio of $ \Delta\gamma_{112} $ and $ \Delta\gamma_{123} $ to the product of $ v_{n} $ and $ \delta $ in pPb collisions for the Pb-going direction at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV and PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV. (Figure adapted from Ref. [301].)

png pdf
Figure 48:
Upper limits of the fraction of $ v_2 $-independent $ \gamma_{112} $ correlator component as a function of $ N_\text{trk}^\text{offline} $ in pPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV and PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV. (Figure adapted from Ref. [301].)

png pdf
Figure 49:
Left: The normalized difference in $ v_{n} $, $ (v^{-}_{n} - v^{+}_{n})/(v^{-}_{n} + v^{+}_{n}) $, for $ n= $ 2 and 3, as a function of true event charge asymmetry for the 30-40% centrality class in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV. Right: The linear slope parameters, $ {r}^{\text{norm}}_2 $ and $ {r}^{\text{norm}}_3 $, as functions of the centrality class in PbPb collisions. (Figures adapted from Ref. [308].)

png pdf
Figure 49-a:
Left: The normalized difference in $ v_{n} $, $ (v^{-}_{n} - v^{+}_{n})/(v^{-}_{n} + v^{+}_{n}) $, for $ n= $ 2 and 3, as a function of true event charge asymmetry for the 30-40% centrality class in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV. Right: The linear slope parameters, $ {r}^{\text{norm}}_2 $ and $ {r}^{\text{norm}}_3 $, as functions of the centrality class in PbPb collisions. (Figures adapted from Ref. [308].)

png pdf
Figure 49-b:
Left: The normalized difference in $ v_{n} $, $ (v^{-}_{n} - v^{+}_{n})/(v^{-}_{n} + v^{+}_{n}) $, for $ n= $ 2 and 3, as a function of true event charge asymmetry for the 30-40% centrality class in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV. Right: The linear slope parameters, $ {r}^{\text{norm}}_2 $ and $ {r}^{\text{norm}}_3 $, as functions of the centrality class in PbPb collisions. (Figures adapted from Ref. [308].)

png pdf
Figure 50:
Difference of $ v_2 $ between $ \mathrm{D^0} $ and $ \overline{\mathrm{D}}^{0} $ mesons as a function of rapidity. The average value ($ \Delta v_2^{\text{Avg}} $) is extracted by fitting the data considering the statistical uncertainties only. The systematic uncertainty of the $ \Delta v_2^{\text{Avg}} $ is estimated by shifting the each point up and down by its systematic uncertainty. (Figure adapted from Ref. [142].)

png pdf
Figure 51:
An ``unrolled'' calorimeter display of energy deposition in an event containing an unbalanced dijet pair in a $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 2.76 TeV PbPb collision, as recorded by the CMS detector in 2010. The tower-by-tower transverse energy sum combining the measurement in electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters is plotted as a function of $ \eta $ and $ \phi $. The fully corrected transverse momenta of the unbalanced dijet pair are labeled and their position in $ \eta$-$\phi $ indicated with the red-highlighted constituent towers. (Figure adapted from Ref. [103].)

png pdf
Figure 52:
The $ A_{\mathrm{J}} $ distributions for jet pairs with a leading jet of $ p_{\mathrm{T,1}} > $ 120 GeV and subleading jet of $ p_{\mathrm{T,2}} > $ 30 GeV, presented for different event centrality classes. The dijet pair is required to fulfill a back-to-back requirement in azimuthal angle of $ \Delta\phi_{\mathrm{1,2}} > 2\pi/ $ 3. Black filled points represent the PbPb data, while the red hatched histogram shows the PYTHIAHYDJET simulation results. The open blue circles in the upper left panel are the results from $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}} = $ 2.76 TeV pp collisions, acting as an unquenched reference in conjunction with the simulations. Vertical bars represent statistical uncertainties only. (Figure adapted from Ref. [319].)

png pdf
Figure 53:
The $ \langle p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\shortparallel}\hspace{-1.02em}/\kern 0.5em\rangle $ values as a function of $ A_{\mathrm{J}} $ for tracks with $ p_{\mathrm{T}} > $ 0.5 GeV. Dijets are selected with $ p_{\mathrm{T,1}} > $ 120 GeV, $ p_{\mathrm{T,2}} > $ 50 GeV, and $ \Delta\phi_{\mathrm{1,2}} > 2\pi/ $ 3. The left panels are for peripheral, 30-100% centrality events, and the right panels are for central, 0-30% events. The upper row shows the results in PYTHIAHYDJET simulation (lacking quenching) while the lower row shows the result in PbPb data. Both data and simulation are for $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV. Solid circles show the total average $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\shortparallel}\hspace{-1.02em}/\kern 0.5em $ while individual color-filled histograms show contributions from particles of $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ ranging from 0.5-1.0 GeV to larger than 8.0 GeV. Vertical bars represent statistical uncertainties while the horizontal bars surrounding the solid black circles represent systematic uncertainties. (Figure adapted from Ref. [103].)

png pdf
Figure 54:
Inclusive jet $ R_{\mathrm{AA}} $ plotted as a function of the jet $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ for $ |\eta| < $ 2.0. Each panel corresponds to a different centrality class (upper left) 70-90%, (upper middle) 50-70%, (upper right) 30-50%, (lower left) 10-30%, (lower middle) 5-10%, and (lower right) 0-5%. Results for three jet distance parameters, $ R = $ 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4, are overlaid as red stars, black diamonds, and blue crosses, respectively. Vertical bars (typically smaller than the markers) represent the statistical uncertainty, while horizontal bars around each point are the nonglobal systematic uncertainties. Finally, the combined global systematic uncertainty coming from $ T_{\mathrm{AA}} $ and the integrated luminosity measurement is plotted as a shaded green bar on the horizontal black-dashed unity line. (Figure adapted from Ref. [322].)

png pdf
Figure 55:
Jet $ R_{\mathrm{AA}} $ in the 0-10% centrality class as a function of jet $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ for jets with $ |\eta| < $ 2.0. Each panel corresponds to a different distance parameter $ R $, as indicated. Filled red circle markers represent the data, with vertical red lines representing statistical uncertainties and horizontal red lines representing bin widths. The shaded red boxes around the points represent systematic uncertainties. Integrated luminosity (for pp collisions) and $ \langle T_{\mathrm{AA}} \rangle $ (for PbPb collisions) global uncertainties are shown as shaded boxes around the dashed horizontal line for $ R_{\mathrm{AA}} = $ 1. Predictions for the HYBRID [325,326], MARTINI [327], LBT [328], and CCNU [329,330,331] models are plotted for comparison. (Figure adapted from Ref. [139].)

png pdf
Figure 56:
Measurements of $ R_{\mathrm{AA}} $ in central heavy ion collisions at four different center-of-mass energies, for neutral pions (SPS, RHIC), charged hadrons ($ h^{\pm} $) (SPS, RHIC), and charged particles (LHC). Data are taken from Refs. [332,333,334,335,336,337,338,339,340]. Predictions of six models for $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 5.02 TeV PbPb collisions are shown [341,325,342,343,38,344]. The error bars represent the statistical uncertainties and the yellow boxes around the 5.02 TeV CMS data show systematic uncertainties. The $ T_{\mathrm{AA}} $ uncertainties, which are small, are not shown. (Figure adapted from Ref. [340].)

png pdf
Figure 57:
The charged-particle $ R_{\mathrm{AA}}^{*} $ for $ \mathrm{Xe}\mathrm{Xe} $ collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 5.44 TeV [122] and $ R_{\mathrm{AA}} $ for PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV [340]. The asterisk in $ R_{\mathrm{AA}}^{*} $ indicates that the 5.44 TeV pp reference has been calculated by extrapolating a measured 5.02 TeV pp spectrum. The solid pink and open blue boxes represent the systematic uncertainties of the $ \mathrm{Xe}\mathrm{Xe} $ and PbPb data, respectively. The left panel shows the result as a function of particle $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ for a 0-5% centrality selection. In the right panel, the results for the 6.4 $ < p_{\mathrm{T}} < $ 7.2 GeV range are plotted as functions of average $ N_\text{part} $. (Figures adapted from Refs. [340,122].)

png pdf
Figure 57-a:
The charged-particle $ R_{\mathrm{AA}}^{*} $ for $ \mathrm{Xe}\mathrm{Xe} $ collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 5.44 TeV [122] and $ R_{\mathrm{AA}} $ for PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV [340]. The asterisk in $ R_{\mathrm{AA}}^{*} $ indicates that the 5.44 TeV pp reference has been calculated by extrapolating a measured 5.02 TeV pp spectrum. The solid pink and open blue boxes represent the systematic uncertainties of the $ \mathrm{Xe}\mathrm{Xe} $ and PbPb data, respectively. The left panel shows the result as a function of particle $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ for a 0-5% centrality selection. In the right panel, the results for the 6.4 $ < p_{\mathrm{T}} < $ 7.2 GeV range are plotted as functions of average $ N_\text{part} $. (Figures adapted from Refs. [340,122].)

png pdf
Figure 57-b:
The charged-particle $ R_{\mathrm{AA}}^{*} $ for $ \mathrm{Xe}\mathrm{Xe} $ collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 5.44 TeV [122] and $ R_{\mathrm{AA}} $ for PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV [340]. The asterisk in $ R_{\mathrm{AA}}^{*} $ indicates that the 5.44 TeV pp reference has been calculated by extrapolating a measured 5.02 TeV pp spectrum. The solid pink and open blue boxes represent the systematic uncertainties of the $ \mathrm{Xe}\mathrm{Xe} $ and PbPb data, respectively. The left panel shows the result as a function of particle $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ for a 0-5% centrality selection. In the right panel, the results for the 6.4 $ < p_{\mathrm{T}} < $ 7.2 GeV range are plotted as functions of average $ N_\text{part} $. (Figures adapted from Refs. [340,122].)

png pdf
Figure 58:
Comparison between charged-hadron $ v_2 $ results from various methods as a function of $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ in six centrality selections from 0-5% to 50-60%. The vertical bars represent the statistical uncertainties, while the shaded boxes represent systematic uncertainties. (Figure adapted from Ref. [349].)

png pdf
Figure 59:
The dijet $ v_2 $ (left), $ v_3 $ (middle), and $ v_4 $ (right) measured as functions of collision centrality in 5.02 TeV PbPb collisions. The dijet $ v_2 $ results are compared to CMS high-$ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ hadron $ v_2 $ results. The shaded boxes represent systematic uncertainties, while the vertical bars show statistical uncertainties. (Figure adapted from Ref. [351].)

png pdf
Figure 60:
Feynman diagrams depicting two leading-order processes producing a photon or a Z boson with a jet balancing the transverse momentum in the final state. The first diagram shows the outgoing jet to be initiated by a quark, while the other shows the outgoing jet to be initiated by a gluon. These rare hard scatterings have been used to study jet quenching in a number of CMS analyses [352].

png pdf
Figure 61:
The $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ balancing observable $ x_{\mathrm{J}}\gamma $ for $ \gamma+\text{jet} $ pairs is plotted as a function of centrality class panel-by-panel, with the leftmost panel corresponding to the 50-100% peripheral selection, progressing to the 0-10% central selection in the rightmost panel. The distribution is normalized by the number of photons in a pp reference (open markers) and PbPb (full markers) data, per centrality class. Vertical lines display the statistical uncertainties while the shaded bars around the points (red for PbPb, green for pp) show the systematic uncertainties. The statistical uncertainties of the pp data are smaller than the markers for many data points. (Figure adapted from Ref. [352].)

png pdf
Figure 62:
Relative contributions of fragmentation (red), photon+quark jet (grey), and photon+gluon jet (blue) processes to the production of isolated photons in PYTHIA8 events. The requirement of an isolated photon in the event increases the fraction of quark-initiated jets relative to an inclusive jet sample. (Figure adapted from Ref. [352].)

png pdf
Figure 63:
Results for the gluon-like jet fractions in pp and PbPb data shown for different track $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ threshold values and event centrality selections in PbPb collisions. The systematic and statistical uncertainties are represented by the shaded regions and vertical bars, respectively. The predictions for the gluon jet fractions from PYTHIA 6 are shown in dashed red lines. (Figure adapted from Ref. [354].)

png pdf
Figure 64:
Dijet imbalance for inclusive (left) dijets and b dijets (center) in pp collisions and for different centrality selections of 5.02 TeV PbPb collisions. The right panel shows the difference in the $ \langle x_{\mathrm{J}} \rangle $ values between PbPb and the smeared pp reference. Systematic uncertainties are shown as shaded boxes and statistical uncertainties are displayed as vertical lines. (Figure adapted from Ref. [320].)

png pdf
Figure 65:
Left: Observed and postfit predicted BDT discriminator distributions in the $ \mathrm{e}^\pm\mu^\mp $ final state separately in the 0b-, 1b-, and 2b-tagged jet multiplicity categories. The data are shown with markers, and the signal and background processes with filled histograms. The vertical bars on the markers represent the statistical uncertainties in data. The hatched regions show the uncertainties in the sum of $ \mathrm{t} \overline{\mathrm{t}} $ signal and backgrounds. The lower panel displays the ratio between the data and the predictions, including the $ \mathrm{t} \overline{\mathrm{t}} $ signal, with bands representing the uncertainties in the postfit predictions. Right: Inclusive $ \mathrm{t} \overline{\mathrm{t}} $ cross sections measured with two methods in the combined $ \mathrm{e}^\pm\mu^\mp $, $ \mu^{+}\mu^{-} $, and $ \mathrm{e}^+\mathrm{e}^- $ final states in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 5.02 TeV, and pp results at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}}= $ 5.02 TeV (scaled by $ A^2 $). The measurements are compared with theoretical predictions at NNLO+NNLL accuracy in QCD. The inner (outer) experimental uncertainty bars include statistical (statistical and systematic, added in quadrature) uncertainties. The inner (outer) theoretical uncertainty bands correspond to nPDF or PDF (PDF and scale, added in quadrature) uncertainties. (Figures adapted from Ref. [146].)

png pdf
Figure 65-a:
Left: Observed and postfit predicted BDT discriminator distributions in the $ \mathrm{e}^\pm\mu^\mp $ final state separately in the 0b-, 1b-, and 2b-tagged jet multiplicity categories. The data are shown with markers, and the signal and background processes with filled histograms. The vertical bars on the markers represent the statistical uncertainties in data. The hatched regions show the uncertainties in the sum of $ \mathrm{t} \overline{\mathrm{t}} $ signal and backgrounds. The lower panel displays the ratio between the data and the predictions, including the $ \mathrm{t} \overline{\mathrm{t}} $ signal, with bands representing the uncertainties in the postfit predictions. Right: Inclusive $ \mathrm{t} \overline{\mathrm{t}} $ cross sections measured with two methods in the combined $ \mathrm{e}^\pm\mu^\mp $, $ \mu^{+}\mu^{-} $, and $ \mathrm{e}^+\mathrm{e}^- $ final states in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 5.02 TeV, and pp results at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}}= $ 5.02 TeV (scaled by $ A^2 $). The measurements are compared with theoretical predictions at NNLO+NNLL accuracy in QCD. The inner (outer) experimental uncertainty bars include statistical (statistical and systematic, added in quadrature) uncertainties. The inner (outer) theoretical uncertainty bands correspond to nPDF or PDF (PDF and scale, added in quadrature) uncertainties. (Figures adapted from Ref. [146].)

png
Figure 65-b:
Left: Observed and postfit predicted BDT discriminator distributions in the $ \mathrm{e}^\pm\mu^\mp $ final state separately in the 0b-, 1b-, and 2b-tagged jet multiplicity categories. The data are shown with markers, and the signal and background processes with filled histograms. The vertical bars on the markers represent the statistical uncertainties in data. The hatched regions show the uncertainties in the sum of $ \mathrm{t} \overline{\mathrm{t}} $ signal and backgrounds. The lower panel displays the ratio between the data and the predictions, including the $ \mathrm{t} \overline{\mathrm{t}} $ signal, with bands representing the uncertainties in the postfit predictions. Right: Inclusive $ \mathrm{t} \overline{\mathrm{t}} $ cross sections measured with two methods in the combined $ \mathrm{e}^\pm\mu^\mp $, $ \mu^{+}\mu^{-} $, and $ \mathrm{e}^+\mathrm{e}^- $ final states in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 5.02 TeV, and pp results at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}}= $ 5.02 TeV (scaled by $ A^2 $). The measurements are compared with theoretical predictions at NNLO+NNLL accuracy in QCD. The inner (outer) experimental uncertainty bars include statistical (statistical and systematic, added in quadrature) uncertainties. The inner (outer) theoretical uncertainty bands correspond to nPDF or PDF (PDF and scale, added in quadrature) uncertainties. (Figures adapted from Ref. [146].)

png pdf
Figure 66:
Upper: Fragmentation functions as a function of $ \xi $ in bins of PbPb centrality (left-to-right: 50-100%, 30-50%, 10-30%, and 0-10%) with the result from pp reference data overlaid. Lower: Ratios of the PbPb fragmentation functions over those for the pp reference. Jets are selected in the $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ range 150 to 300 GeV and tracks with $ p_{\mathrm{T}} > $ 1 GeV. Vertical bars and shaded boxes represent the statistical and systematic uncertainties, respectively. (Figure adapted from Ref. [366].)

png pdf
Figure 67:
Comparison of $ \gamma $-tagged fragmentation functions in centrality bins 10-30% (left) and 0-10% (right) as a function of the observables $ \xi^{\text{jet}} $ (upper), defined in Eq. (21), and $ \xi^{\gamma}_{\mathrm{T}} $ (lower), defined in Eq. (22). For comparison, curves from the theoretical models SCETG [341], CoLBT-hydro [367,368,369], and HYBRID [370] are overlaid. The widths of the bands represent variations of the coupling strength in the SCETG case and of the dimensionless parameter $ \kappa $ in the HYBRID case. Vertical bars and shaded boxes represent the statistical and systematic uncertainties, respectively. (Figures adapted from Ref. [371].)

png pdf
Figure 67-a:
Comparison of $ \gamma $-tagged fragmentation functions in centrality bins 10-30% (left) and 0-10% (right) as a function of the observables $ \xi^{\text{jet}} $ (upper), defined in Eq. (21), and $ \xi^{\gamma}_{\mathrm{T}} $ (lower), defined in Eq. (22). For comparison, curves from the theoretical models SCETG [341], CoLBT-hydro [367,368,369], and HYBRID [370] are overlaid. The widths of the bands represent variations of the coupling strength in the SCETG case and of the dimensionless parameter $ \kappa $ in the HYBRID case. Vertical bars and shaded boxes represent the statistical and systematic uncertainties, respectively. (Figures adapted from Ref. [371].)

png pdf
Figure 67-b:
Comparison of $ \gamma $-tagged fragmentation functions in centrality bins 10-30% (left) and 0-10% (right) as a function of the observables $ \xi^{\text{jet}} $ (upper), defined in Eq. (21), and $ \xi^{\gamma}_{\mathrm{T}} $ (lower), defined in Eq. (22). For comparison, curves from the theoretical models SCETG [341], CoLBT-hydro [367,368,369], and HYBRID [370] are overlaid. The widths of the bands represent variations of the coupling strength in the SCETG case and of the dimensionless parameter $ \kappa $ in the HYBRID case. Vertical bars and shaded boxes represent the statistical and systematic uncertainties, respectively. (Figures adapted from Ref. [371].)

png pdf
Figure 68:
The angular jet momentum distribution $ P(\Delta r) $ of jets in pp (upper) and PbPb (middle) collisions. The PbPb results are shown for different centrality regions. The lower row shows the ratio between PbPb and pp data for the indicated intervals of $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\text{trk}} $. The shaded bands show the total systematic uncertainties. (Figure adapted from Ref. [380].)

png pdf
Figure 69:
Ratio of the differential jet shape for jets associated with an isolated photon for 5.02 TeV 0-10% PbPb collisions and pp reference data. The measurement is performed using jets having $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^\text{jet} > $ 30 GeV and tracks with $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\text{trk}} > $ 1 GeV. (Figure adapted from Ref. [385].)

png pdf
Figure 70:
Distribution of the ratio of the groomed jet splitting fraction in central PbPb data compared to a pp reference. Each panel corresponds to a different jet $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ range and the different colored lines and bands are predictions from MC models. Statistical and systematic uncertainties in the data are shown by vertical bars and shaded boxes, respectively. (Figure adapted from Ref. [390].)

png pdf
Figure 71:
Distribution of the ratio of the groomed jet mass, $ M_{\mathrm{g}} $, in central PbPb data compared to the pp reference for two different grooming criteria in four ranges of jet $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $. The left panel shows more stringent grooming criteria, while the right panel shows the same measurement for the default grooming requirements. The different lines represent MC predictions; they show deviations from the data at larger masses. Statistical and systematic uncertainties in the data are shown by vertical bars and shaded boxes, respectively. (Figures adapted from Ref. [391].)

png pdf
Figure 71-a:
Distribution of the ratio of the groomed jet mass, $ M_{\mathrm{g}} $, in central PbPb data compared to the pp reference for two different grooming criteria in four ranges of jet $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $. The left panel shows more stringent grooming criteria, while the right panel shows the same measurement for the default grooming requirements. The different lines represent MC predictions; they show deviations from the data at larger masses. Statistical and systematic uncertainties in the data are shown by vertical bars and shaded boxes, respectively. (Figures adapted from Ref. [391].)

png pdf
Figure 71-b:
Distribution of the ratio of the groomed jet mass, $ M_{\mathrm{g}} $, in central PbPb data compared to the pp reference for two different grooming criteria in four ranges of jet $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $. The left panel shows more stringent grooming criteria, while the right panel shows the same measurement for the default grooming requirements. The different lines represent MC predictions; they show deviations from the data at larger masses. Statistical and systematic uncertainties in the data are shown by vertical bars and shaded boxes, respectively. (Figures adapted from Ref. [391].)

png pdf
Figure 72:
Nuclear modification factors of inclusive charged particles, prompt $ \mathrm{D^0} $ and $ {\mathrm{B}^{+}} $, and nonprompt $ \mathrm{D^0} $ and $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ mesons, as a function of their $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ in PbPb collisions. (Figures adapted from Refs. [340,392, 393,394,395].)

png pdf
Figure 73:
(Left) Azimuthal anisotropy coefficient $ v_2 $ of inclusive charged particles, prompt $ \mathrm{D^0} $, and nonprompt $ \mathrm{D^0} $ and $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ mesons as a function of $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ in PbPb collisions. (Figures adapted from Refs. [349,142,144,397].) (Right) Prompt $ \mathrm{D^0} $ meson $v_2\{2\}$, $v_2\{4\}$ and their ratio as functions of centrality. (Figure adapted from Ref. [143].)

png pdf
Figure 73-a:
(Left) Azimuthal anisotropy coefficient $ v_2 $ of inclusive charged particles, prompt $ \mathrm{D^0} $, and nonprompt $ \mathrm{D^0} $ and $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ mesons as a function of $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ in PbPb collisions. (Figures adapted from Refs. [349,142,144,397].) (Right) Prompt $ \mathrm{D^0} $ meson $v_2\{2\}$, $v_2\{4\}$ and their ratio as functions of centrality. (Figure adapted from Ref. [143].)

png pdf
Figure 73-b:
(Left) Azimuthal anisotropy coefficient $ v_2 $ of inclusive charged particles, prompt $ \mathrm{D^0} $, and nonprompt $ \mathrm{D^0} $ and $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ mesons as a function of $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ in PbPb collisions. (Figures adapted from Refs. [349,142,144,397].) (Right) Prompt $ \mathrm{D^0} $ meson $v_2\{2\}$, $v_2\{4\}$ and their ratio as functions of centrality. (Figure adapted from Ref. [143].)

png pdf
Figure 74:
Distributions of $ \mathrm{D^0} $ mesons in jets, as a function of the distance from the jet axis. The ratios of the $ \mathrm{D^0} $ meson radial distributions in PbPb and pp data are shown in the middle panel, whereas in the lower panel the ratios of the $ \mathrm{D^0} $ meson radial distributions of pp over the two MC event generators are presented. (Figure adapted from Ref. [404].)

png pdf
Figure 75:
The ratio of the production cross sections of prompt $ \Lambda_{c}^{+} $ to prompt $ \mathrm{D^0} $ versus $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ from pp collisions. The data are compared to various models (left) and to similar measurements in PbPb collisions (right). (Figure adapted from Ref. [409].)

png pdf
Figure 75-a:
The ratio of the production cross sections of prompt $ \Lambda_{c}^{+} $ to prompt $ \mathrm{D^0} $ versus $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ from pp collisions. The data are compared to various models (left) and to similar measurements in PbPb collisions (right). (Figure adapted from Ref. [409].)

png pdf
Figure 75-b:
The ratio of the production cross sections of prompt $ \Lambda_{c}^{+} $ to prompt $ \mathrm{D^0} $ versus $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ from pp collisions. The data are compared to various models (left) and to similar measurements in PbPb collisions (right). (Figure adapted from Ref. [409].)

png pdf
Figure 76:
The $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $-differential cross sections for prompt $ \Lambda_{c}^{+} $ baryon production in pp collisions, together with model calculations. (Figure adapted from Ref. [409].)

png pdf
Figure 77:
Left: The ratio of $ \mathrm{B}_{s}^{0} $ and $ {\mathrm{B}^{+}} $ production yields as a function of $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ in pp and PbPb collisions, together with model calculations. Right: The nuclear modification factor of $ \mathrm{B}_{c}^{+} $ and other hadrons in PbPb collisions. (Figures adapted from Refs. [410,411].)

png pdf
Figure 77-a:
Left: The ratio of $ \mathrm{B}_{s}^{0} $ and $ {\mathrm{B}^{+}} $ production yields as a function of $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ in pp and PbPb collisions, together with model calculations. Right: The nuclear modification factor of $ \mathrm{B}_{c}^{+} $ and other hadrons in PbPb collisions. (Figures adapted from Refs. [410,411].)

png
Figure 77-b:
Left: The ratio of $ \mathrm{B}_{s}^{0} $ and $ {\mathrm{B}^{+}} $ production yields as a function of $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ in pp and PbPb collisions, together with model calculations. Right: The nuclear modification factor of $ \mathrm{B}_{c}^{+} $ and other hadrons in PbPb collisions. (Figures adapted from Refs. [410,411].)

png pdf
Figure 79:
Upper: Nuclear modification factors, as a function of the mean number of participants, for the promptly-produced $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ and $\psi(2\mathrm{S})$ mesons (left), as well as for the $ \Upsilon{\textrm{(1S)}} $, $ \Upsilon{\textrm{(2S)}} $, and $ \Upsilon{\textrm{(3S)}} $ (right), as measured from pp and PbPb data at 5.02 TeV. Lower: Corresponding $\psi(2\mathrm{S})$/ $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ (left) and $ \Upsilon{\textrm{(3S)}} $/$ \Upsilon{\textrm{(2S)}} $ (right) double-ratios. (Figures adapted from Refs. [395,452,453].)

png pdf
Figure 80:
The dimuon invariant mass distribution measured in PbPb collisions when integrating over the full kinematic range of $ p_{\mathrm{T}} < $ 30 GeV and $ |y| < $ 2.4. The solid curves show the fit results, and the orange dashed and blue dash-dotted curves display the three $ \Upsilon $ states and the background, respectively. The inset shows the region around the $ \Upsilon{\textrm{(3S)}} $ meson mass. (Figures adapted from Refs. [452].)

png pdf
Figure 81:
Normalized $ z $ distribution of $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ mesons in jets measured in pp collisions at 5.02 TeV, compared to prompt and nonprompt $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ in PYTHIA8. (Figure adapted from Ref. [455].)

png pdf
Figure 82:
Nuclear modification factors $ R_{\mathrm{AA}} $ for the promptly-produced $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $, as a function of $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $, compared with $ \mathrm{D^0} $ mesons (left) and as a function of $ z $ (right), as measured from pp and PbPb data at 5.02 TeV. (Figures adapted from Refs. [392,395,455].)

png pdf
Figure 82-a:
Nuclear modification factors $ R_{\mathrm{AA}} $ for the promptly-produced $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $, as a function of $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $, compared with $ \mathrm{D^0} $ mesons (left) and as a function of $ z $ (right), as measured from pp and PbPb data at 5.02 TeV. (Figures adapted from Refs. [392,395,455].)

png pdf
Figure 82-b:
Nuclear modification factors $ R_{\mathrm{AA}} $ for the promptly-produced $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $, as a function of $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $, compared with $ \mathrm{D^0} $ mesons (left) and as a function of $ z $ (right), as measured from pp and PbPb data at 5.02 TeV. (Figures adapted from Refs. [392,395,455].)

png pdf
Figure 83:
The prompt $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ $ v_2 $ as a function of $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ (left) and $ N_\text{part} $ (right), in PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV. (Figure adapted from Ref. [397].)

png pdf
Figure 84:
Left: Pseudorapidity density of charged hadrons in the range $ |\eta_{\mathrm{lab}}| < $ 2.4 in pPb collisions at 8.16 TeV. The results are compared to predictions from the MC event generators EPOS LHC [461,118] (v3400), HIJING [119] (versions 1.3 [462] and 2.1 [463]), and DPMJET-III [464], as well as from the KLN model [465]. The shaded boxes around the data points indicate their systematic uncertainties. The proton beam goes in the positive $ \eta_{\mathrm{lab}} $ direction. Right: Comparison of the measured density at midrapidity, scaled by $ N_\text{part} $ in pPb [466,467], $ \mathrm{p}\mathrm{Au} $ [468], $ \text{dAu} $ [469,470,471] and central heavy ion collisions [224,472,473,474,475,476,477,478,479,480,481,106,470,482,483], as well as NSD [229,484,228,483,485,226,225] and inelastic [486,228,227,224,487] pp collisions. The dashed curves, included to guide the eye, are from Refs. [227,480].

png pdf
Figure 84-a:
Left: Pseudorapidity density of charged hadrons in the range $ |\eta_{\mathrm{lab}}| < $ 2.4 in pPb collisions at 8.16 TeV. The results are compared to predictions from the MC event generators EPOS LHC [461,118] (v3400), HIJING [119] (versions 1.3 [462] and 2.1 [463]), and DPMJET-III [464], as well as from the KLN model [465]. The shaded boxes around the data points indicate their systematic uncertainties. The proton beam goes in the positive $ \eta_{\mathrm{lab}} $ direction. Right: Comparison of the measured density at midrapidity, scaled by $ N_\text{part} $ in pPb [466,467], $ \mathrm{p}\mathrm{Au} $ [468], $ \text{dAu} $ [469,470,471] and central heavy ion collisions [224,472,473,474,475,476,477,478,479,480,481,106,470,482,483], as well as NSD [229,484,228,483,485,226,225] and inelastic [486,228,227,224,487] pp collisions. The dashed curves, included to guide the eye, are from Refs. [227,480].

png pdf
Figure 84-b:
Left: Pseudorapidity density of charged hadrons in the range $ |\eta_{\mathrm{lab}}| < $ 2.4 in pPb collisions at 8.16 TeV. The results are compared to predictions from the MC event generators EPOS LHC [461,118] (v3400), HIJING [119] (versions 1.3 [462] and 2.1 [463]), and DPMJET-III [464], as well as from the KLN model [465]. The shaded boxes around the data points indicate their systematic uncertainties. The proton beam goes in the positive $ \eta_{\mathrm{lab}} $ direction. Right: Comparison of the measured density at midrapidity, scaled by $ N_\text{part} $ in pPb [466,467], $ \mathrm{p}\mathrm{Au} $ [468], $ \text{dAu} $ [469,470,471] and central heavy ion collisions [224,472,473,474,475,476,477,478,479,480,481,106,470,482,483], as well as NSD [229,484,228,483,485,226,225] and inelastic [486,228,227,224,487] pp collisions. The dashed curves, included to guide the eye, are from Refs. [227,480].

png pdf
Figure 85:
Average transverse momentum of identified charged hadrons in the range $ |y| < $ 1 as a function of the corrected track multiplicity for $ |\eta| < $ 2.4, for pp collisions (open symbols) at several energies [488] and for pPb collisions (filled symbols) at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV. Left: Results compared to predictions from event generators. Right: Comparison of pp, pPb, and PbPb data. The ranges of $ \langle p_{\mathrm{T}}\rangle $ values measured by ALICE in various centrality PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 2.76 TeV [489] are indicated with horizontal bands.

png pdf
Figure 85-a:
Average transverse momentum of identified charged hadrons in the range $ |y| < $ 1 as a function of the corrected track multiplicity for $ |\eta| < $ 2.4, for pp collisions (open symbols) at several energies [488] and for pPb collisions (filled symbols) at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV. Left: Results compared to predictions from event generators. Right: Comparison of pp, pPb, and PbPb data. The ranges of $ \langle p_{\mathrm{T}}\rangle $ values measured by ALICE in various centrality PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 2.76 TeV [489] are indicated with horizontal bands.

png pdf
Figure 85-b:
Average transverse momentum of identified charged hadrons in the range $ |y| < $ 1 as a function of the corrected track multiplicity for $ |\eta| < $ 2.4, for pp collisions (open symbols) at several energies [488] and for pPb collisions (filled symbols) at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV. Left: Results compared to predictions from event generators. Right: Comparison of pp, pPb, and PbPb data. The ranges of $ \langle p_{\mathrm{T}}\rangle $ values measured by ALICE in various centrality PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 2.76 TeV [489] are indicated with horizontal bands.

png pdf
Figure 86:
Ratios of $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ spectra for $ \Lambda/2\mathrm{K^0_S} $ in the center-of-mass rapidity range $ |y_\mathrm{cm}| < $ 1.0 for pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}} = $ 7 TeV (left), pPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}} = $ 5.02 TeV (middle), and PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV (right). Two (for pp) or three (for pPb and PbPb) representative multiplicity intervals are presented. (Figure adapted from Ref. [491].)

png pdf
Figure 87:
Panels (a), (b), and (c) show the 2D two-particle correlation functions for pairs of charged particles with 1 $ < p_{\mathrm{T}} < $ 3 GeV for high multiplicity events in pp at 7 TeV and pPb at 5.02 TeV, as well as peripheral PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV. Panel (d) displays the ridge yield as a function of multiplicity in pp, pPb, and PbPb collisions. The vertical bars and shaded boxes denote the statistical and systematic uncertainties, respectively. (Figures adapted from Refs. [293,296,105,294].)

png pdf
Figure 88:
Left: The $ v_2\{2, |\Delta\eta| > 2\} $, $ v_2^\text{sub}\{2, |\Delta\eta| > 2\} $, $ v_2\{4\} $, and $ v_2\{6\} $ values as functions of $ N_\text{trk}^\text{offline} $ for charged particles, averaged over 0.3 $ < p_{\mathrm{T}} < $ 3.0 GeV and $ |\eta| < $ 2.4, in pp collisions at 13 TeV. Middle: The $ v_2{2, |\Delta\eta| > 2} $, $ v_2^\text{sub}\{2, |\Delta\eta| > 2\} $, $ v_2\{4\} $, $ v_2\{6\} $, $ v_2\{8\} $, and $ v_2{\mathrm{LYZ}} $ values in pPb collisions at 5 TeV. Right: The $ v_2{2, |\Delta\eta| > 2} $, $ v_2^\text{sub}\{2, |\Delta\eta| > 2\} $, $ v_2\{4\} $, $ v_2\{6\} $, $ v_2\{8\} $, and $ v_2{\mathrm{LYZ}} $ values in PbPb collisions at 2.76 TeV. The vertical bars and shaded boxes for $ v_2^\text{sub}\{2, |\Delta\eta| > 2\} $ and $ v_2\{4\} $ denote the statistical and systematic uncertainties, respectively, with the former generally being smaller than the symbols. For $ v_2\{6\} $, $ v_2\{8\} $, and $ v_2\{\mathrm{LYZ}\} $, vertical bars show statistical uncertainties and systematic uncertainties are shown by green, red, and gray shaded bands, respectively. (Figure adapted from Ref. [295].)

png pdf
Figure 89:
Cumulant ratios $v_2\{6\}/v_2\{4\}$ (upper) and $v_2\{8\}/v_2\{6\}$ (lower) as functions of $ v_2\{4\}/v^{\text{sub}}_2\{2\} $ in pPb collisions at 5.02 and 8.16 TeV. The solid curves show the expected behavior based on a hydrodynamics-motivated study of the role of initial-state fluctuations [494]. (Figure adapted from Ref. [495].)

png pdf
Figure 90:
The \SCnm23 (left panel) and \SCnm24 (right panel) distributions as functions of $ N_\text{trk}^\text{offline} $ from methods using no (open black circles), 2 (full blue circles), 3 (red squares), and 4 (green crosses) subevents for pPb at 8.16 TeV. Statistical and systematic uncertainties are shown by vertical bars and shaded boxes, respectively. (Figure adapted from Ref. [496].)

png pdf
Figure 91:
Upper: The $ v_2^{\text{sub}} $ values for prompt $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $\ mesons at forward rapidities ($ -2.86 < y_{\text{cm}} < - $ 1.86 or 0.94 $ < y_{\text{cm}} < $ 1.94), as well as for $ \mathrm{K^0_S} $\ and $ \Lambda $ hadrons, and prompt $ \mathrm{D^0} $\ mesons at midrapidity ($ -1.46 < y_{\text{cm}} < $ 0.54), as a function of $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $\ for pPb\ collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV with 185 $ \leq N_\text{trk}^\text{offline} < $ 250. Lower: The $ n_\mathrm{q} $-normalized $ v_2^{\text{sub}} $ results. The vertical bars correspond to statistical uncertainties, while the shaded boxes denote the systematic uncertainties. (Figure adapted from Ref. [510].)

png pdf
Figure 92:
Results of $ v_2^{\text{sub}} $ for prompt $ \mathrm{D^0} $ mesons, as a function of $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ for $ |y_{\text{lab}}| < $ 1, with $ N_\text{trk}^\text{offline} \geq $ 100 in pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}} = $ 13 TeV. The results for charged particles, $ \mathrm{K^0_S} $ mesons, and $ \Lambda $ baryons are shown for comparison. Vertical bars correspond to the statistical uncertainties, while the shaded boxes denote the systematic uncertainties. The horizontal bars represent the width of the $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ bins for prompt $ \mathrm{D^0} $ mesons. (Figure adapted from Ref. [511].)

png pdf
Figure 93:
Results of $ v_2^{\text{sub}} $ for prompt $ \mathrm{D^0} $ mesons, as a function of event multiplicity for three different $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ ranges, with $ |y_{\text{lab}}| < $ 1 in pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}} = $ 13 TeV, and pPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV. The vertical bars correspond to statistical uncertainties, while the shaded boxes denote the systematic uncertainties. Vertical bars extending beyond the y-axis are symmetric with respect to the central values. The horizontal bars represent the width of the $ N_\text{trk}^\text{offline} $ bins. The right-most points with right-hand arrows correspond to $ N_\text{trk}^\text{offline}\geq $ 100 for pp collisions and $ N_\text{trk}^\text{offline}\geq $ 250 for pPb collisions. (Figure adapted from Ref. [511].)

png pdf
Figure 94:
Results of $ v_2^{\text{sub}} $ for prompt and nonprompt $ \mathrm{D^0} $ mesons, as well as $ \mathrm{K^0_S} $ mesons, $ \Lambda $ baryons for $ |y_{\text{lab}}| < $ 1, and prompt $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $\ mesons for 1.2 $ < |y_{\text{lab}}| < $ 2.4, as a function of $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ with 185 $ \leq N_\text{trk}^\text{offline} < $ 250 in pPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV. The vertical bars correspond to statistical uncertainties, while the shaded boxes denote the systematic uncertainties. The horizontal bars represent the width of the nonprompt $ \mathrm{D^0} p_{\mathrm{T}} $ bins. The red dashed, blue dash-dotted, and green solid lines show the theoretical calculations for prompt $ \mathrm{D^0} $, $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $, and nonprompt $ \mathrm{D^0} $ mesons, respectively, within the CGC framework [518,519]. (Figure adapted from Ref. [511].)

png pdf
Figure 95:
The $ N_\text{trk}^\text{offline} $ spectra for $ {\gamma\mathrm{p}} $ and minimum bias pPb samples. The simulated $ N_\text{trk}^\text{offline} $ distribution for $ {\gamma\mathrm{p}} $ events has been normalized to the same event yield as the $ {\gamma\mathrm{p}} $-enhanced data sample.

png pdf
Figure 96:
Single-particle azimuthal anisotropy $ v_2 $ versus $ N_\text{trk}^\text{offline} $ for $ {\gamma\mathrm{p}} $-enhanced and pPb samples in two $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ regions. The systematic uncertainties are shown by the shaded bars in the two panels. Predictions from the PYTHIA8 and HIJING generators are shown for the $ {\gamma\mathrm{p}} $ and MB pPb samples respectively. For the $ {\gamma\mathrm{p}} $ events, the same $ N_\text{trk}^\text{offline} $ bin arrangement as in Fig. 95 is kept, while for pPb the bins $ [2, 5) $, $ [5, 10) $, $ [10, 15) $, and $ [15, 20) $ are used.

png pdf
Figure 97:
Left: Rapidity dependence of $ R_{\mathrm{p}\mathrm{b}} $ for prompt $\psi(2\mathrm{S})$ meson in the $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ range 6.5 $ < p_{\mathrm{T}} < $ 10 GeV. For comparison, the prompt $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ meson nuclear modification factor is also shown. (Figures adapted from Refs. [527,528].) Right: Nuclear modification factor of $ \Upsilon{\textrm{(1S)}} $ (red dots), $ \Upsilon{\textrm{(2S)}} $ (blue squares), and $ \Upsilon{\textrm{(3S)}} $ (green diamonds) at forward and backward rapidity [528]. For both panels, statistical and systematic uncertainties are represented with vertical bars and boxes, respectively. The fully correlated global uncertainty of 4.2%, affecting both charmonia equally, is displayed as the gray box around $ R_{\mathrm{p}\mathrm{b}}= $ 1.

png pdf
Figure 97-a:
Left: Rapidity dependence of $ R_{\mathrm{p}\mathrm{b}} $ for prompt $\psi(2\mathrm{S})$ meson in the $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ range 6.5 $ < p_{\mathrm{T}} < $ 10 GeV. For comparison, the prompt $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ meson nuclear modification factor is also shown. (Figures adapted from Refs. [527,528].) Right: Nuclear modification factor of $ \Upsilon{\textrm{(1S)}} $ (red dots), $ \Upsilon{\textrm{(2S)}} $ (blue squares), and $ \Upsilon{\textrm{(3S)}} $ (green diamonds) at forward and backward rapidity [528]. For both panels, statistical and systematic uncertainties are represented with vertical bars and boxes, respectively. The fully correlated global uncertainty of 4.2%, affecting both charmonia equally, is displayed as the gray box around $ R_{\mathrm{p}\mathrm{b}}= $ 1.

png pdf
Figure 97-b:
Left: Rapidity dependence of $ R_{\mathrm{p}\mathrm{b}} $ for prompt $\psi(2\mathrm{S})$ meson in the $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ range 6.5 $ < p_{\mathrm{T}} < $ 10 GeV. For comparison, the prompt $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ meson nuclear modification factor is also shown. (Figures adapted from Refs. [527,528].) Right: Nuclear modification factor of $ \Upsilon{\textrm{(1S)}} $ (red dots), $ \Upsilon{\textrm{(2S)}} $ (blue squares), and $ \Upsilon{\textrm{(3S)}} $ (green diamonds) at forward and backward rapidity [528]. For both panels, statistical and systematic uncertainties are represented with vertical bars and boxes, respectively. The fully correlated global uncertainty of 4.2%, affecting both charmonia equally, is displayed as the gray box around $ R_{\mathrm{p}\mathrm{b}}= $ 1.

png pdf
Figure 98:
Nuclear modification factors versus $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ for an inclusive centrality selection for both PbPb and pPb collisions. The green and orange boxes show the systematic uncertainties for $ R_{\mathrm{p}\mathrm{A}} $ and $ R_{\mathrm{AA}} $, respectively, while the $ T_{\mathrm{p}\mathrm{A}} $, $ T_{\mathrm{AA}} $, and pp integrated luminosity uncertainties are shown as grey boxes around unity at low $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $. Statistical uncertainties are shown as vertical bars. (Figure adapted from Ref. [340].)

png pdf jpg
Figure 99:
Average ratios of jet transverse momenta as a function of $ E_{\mathrm{T}}^{4 < |\eta| < 5.2} $. The inclusive HF activity results for pPb and PYTHIA+HIJING are shown as blue solid and black empty squares, respectively. The systematic (statistical) uncertainties are indicated by the yellow, grey, and blue boxes (vertical bars). Various theoretical calculations are shown by the open square and circles and the grey band at about 0.7. (Figure adapted from Ref. [120].)

png pdf
Figure 100:
Event display of a candidate $ \gamma\gamma\to\tau^{+}\tau^{-} $ event measured in a PbPb UPC at CMS. The event is reconstructed as corresponding to a leptonic $ \tau $ decay (red), $ \tau\to\mu\overline{\nu}_{\!\mu}\nu_{\!\tau} $, and a hadronic $ \tau $ decay (yellow), $ \tau\to\pi^{\pm}\pi^{\mp}\pi^{\pm}\nu_{\!\tau} $. (Figure adapted from Ref. [536].)

png pdf
Figure 101:
Neutron multiplicity dependence of acoplanarity distributions from $ \gamma\gamma\to\mu^{+}\mu^{-} $ in ultraperipheral PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV. The $ \alpha $ distributions are normalized to unit integral over their measured range. The dot-dot-dashed and dotted lines indicate the core and tail contributions, respectively. The vertical lines on data points depict the statistical uncertainties, while the systematic uncertainties and horizontal bin widths are shown as gray boxes. (Figure adapted from Ref. [208].)

png pdf
Figure 102:
Neutron multiplicity dependence of the (upper) average acoplanarity $ \langle \alpha^\text{core} \rangle $ and (lower) average invariant mass $ \langle m_{\mu\mu} \rangle $ of $ \mu^{+}\mu^{-} $ pairs in ultraperipheral PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV. The vertical lines on data points depict the statistical uncertainties while the systematic uncertainties of the data are shown as shaded areas. The dot-dashed line shows the STARLIGHT MC prediction and the dashed line corresponds to the LO QED calculation of Ref. [558]. The calculation incorporating Sudakov radiative corrections is also compared to data in Ref. [208], leading to an overall better agreement. (Figure adapted from Ref. [208].)

png pdf
Figure 103:
Schematic diagrams of light-by-light scattering ($ \gamma\gamma \to \gamma\gamma $, left), QED dielectron ($ \gamma\gamma \to \mathrm{e}^+\mathrm{e}^- $, center), and central exclusive diphoton ($ \mathrm{g}\mathrm{g} \to \gamma\gamma $, right) production in ultraperipheral PbPb collisions. The ``($ \ast $)'' superscript indicates a potential electromagnetic excitation of the outgoing ions. (Figure adapted from Ref. [535].)

png pdf
Figure 104:
Acoplanarity distribution of exclusive $ \mathrm{e}^+\mathrm{e}^- $ events measured in data (circles), compared to the expected QED $ \mathrm{e}^+\mathrm{e}^- $ spectrum in a LO MC simulation (histogram). The curve shows a $ \chi^2 $ fit to the sum of two exponential distributions, corresponding to exclusive $ \mathrm{e}^+\mathrm{e}^- $ plus any residual (nonacoplanar) background pairs. The error bars represent statistical uncertainties while the hashed bands around the histogram represent the systematic and MC statistical uncertainties added in quadrature. The horizontal bars indicate the bin size. (Figure adapted from Ref. [535].)

png pdf
Figure 105:
Comparison of data (circles) and MC expectation (histogram) for the exclusive $ \mathrm{e}^+\mathrm{e}^- $ events passing the selection criteria, as a function of dielectron acoplanarity (upper left), mass (upper right), $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ (lower left), and rapidity $ y $ (lower right). The error bars around the data points represent statistical uncertainties, while the hashed bands around the histograms represent the systematic and MC statistical uncertainties added in quadrature. The horizontal bars indicate the bin size. The ratio of the data to the MC expectation is shown in the lower panels. (Figures adapted from Ref. [535].)

png pdf
Figure 105-a:
Comparison of data (circles) and MC expectation (histogram) for the exclusive $ \mathrm{e}^+\mathrm{e}^- $ events passing the selection criteria, as a function of dielectron acoplanarity (upper left), mass (upper right), $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ (lower left), and rapidity $ y $ (lower right). The error bars around the data points represent statistical uncertainties, while the hashed bands around the histograms represent the systematic and MC statistical uncertainties added in quadrature. The horizontal bars indicate the bin size. The ratio of the data to the MC expectation is shown in the lower panels. (Figures adapted from Ref. [535].)

png pdf
Figure 105-b:
Comparison of data (circles) and MC expectation (histogram) for the exclusive $ \mathrm{e}^+\mathrm{e}^- $ events passing the selection criteria, as a function of dielectron acoplanarity (upper left), mass (upper right), $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ (lower left), and rapidity $ y $ (lower right). The error bars around the data points represent statistical uncertainties, while the hashed bands around the histograms represent the systematic and MC statistical uncertainties added in quadrature. The horizontal bars indicate the bin size. The ratio of the data to the MC expectation is shown in the lower panels. (Figures adapted from Ref. [535].)

png pdf
Figure 105-c:
Comparison of data (circles) and MC expectation (histogram) for the exclusive $ \mathrm{e}^+\mathrm{e}^- $ events passing the selection criteria, as a function of dielectron acoplanarity (upper left), mass (upper right), $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ (lower left), and rapidity $ y $ (lower right). The error bars around the data points represent statistical uncertainties, while the hashed bands around the histograms represent the systematic and MC statistical uncertainties added in quadrature. The horizontal bars indicate the bin size. The ratio of the data to the MC expectation is shown in the lower panels. (Figures adapted from Ref. [535].)

png pdf
Figure 105-d:
Comparison of data (circles) and MC expectation (histogram) for the exclusive $ \mathrm{e}^+\mathrm{e}^- $ events passing the selection criteria, as a function of dielectron acoplanarity (upper left), mass (upper right), $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ (lower left), and rapidity $ y $ (lower right). The error bars around the data points represent statistical uncertainties, while the hashed bands around the histograms represent the systematic and MC statistical uncertainties added in quadrature. The horizontal bars indicate the bin size. The ratio of the data to the MC expectation is shown in the lower panels. (Figures adapted from Ref. [535].)

png pdf
Figure 106:
Distributions of the single photon $ E_{\mathrm{T}} $ (upper left) and $ \eta $ (upper right), as well as diphoton invariant mass (lower left) and $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ (lower right), measured for the exclusive events passing the selection criteria (squares), compared to the expectations of LbL scattering signal (orange), QED $ \mathrm{e}^+ \mathrm{e}^- $ MC generator predictions (yellow), and the CEP background (light blue). The error bars indicate statistical uncertainties. (Figures adapted from Ref. [535].)

png pdf
Figure 106-a:
Distributions of the single photon $ E_{\mathrm{T}} $ (upper left) and $ \eta $ (upper right), as well as diphoton invariant mass (lower left) and $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ (lower right), measured for the exclusive events passing the selection criteria (squares), compared to the expectations of LbL scattering signal (orange), QED $ \mathrm{e}^+ \mathrm{e}^- $ MC generator predictions (yellow), and the CEP background (light blue). The error bars indicate statistical uncertainties. (Figures adapted from Ref. [535].)

png pdf
Figure 106-b:
Distributions of the single photon $ E_{\mathrm{T}} $ (upper left) and $ \eta $ (upper right), as well as diphoton invariant mass (lower left) and $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ (lower right), measured for the exclusive events passing the selection criteria (squares), compared to the expectations of LbL scattering signal (orange), QED $ \mathrm{e}^+ \mathrm{e}^- $ MC generator predictions (yellow), and the CEP background (light blue). The error bars indicate statistical uncertainties. (Figures adapted from Ref. [535].)

png pdf
Figure 106-c:
Distributions of the single photon $ E_{\mathrm{T}} $ (upper left) and $ \eta $ (upper right), as well as diphoton invariant mass (lower left) and $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ (lower right), measured for the exclusive events passing the selection criteria (squares), compared to the expectations of LbL scattering signal (orange), QED $ \mathrm{e}^+ \mathrm{e}^- $ MC generator predictions (yellow), and the CEP background (light blue). The error bars indicate statistical uncertainties. (Figures adapted from Ref. [535].)

png pdf
Figure 106-d:
Distributions of the single photon $ E_{\mathrm{T}} $ (upper left) and $ \eta $ (upper right), as well as diphoton invariant mass (lower left) and $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ (lower right), measured for the exclusive events passing the selection criteria (squares), compared to the expectations of LbL scattering signal (orange), QED $ \mathrm{e}^+ \mathrm{e}^- $ MC generator predictions (yellow), and the CEP background (light blue). The error bars indicate statistical uncertainties. (Figures adapted from Ref. [535].)

png pdf
Figure 107:
Transverse momentum of the muon originating from the $ \tau_{\mu} $ candidate (upper left). Invariant mass of the three pions forming the $ \tau_{\text{3prong}} $ candidate (upper right). Invariant mass of the $ \tau^{+}\tau^{-} $ system (lower left). The $ \Delta\phi(\tau_{\mu},\tau_{\text{3prong}}) $ azimuthal difference (lower right). In all plots, the signal component (magenta histogram) is stacked on top of the background component (green histogram). The sum of signal and background is displayed by a blue line and the shaded area shows the statistical uncertainty. The data are represented with black points and the uncertainty is statistical only. The lower panels show the ratios of data to the signal-plus-background prediction and the shaded bands represent the statistical uncertainty in the prefit expectation. (Figures adapted from Ref. [536].)

png pdf
Figure 107-a:
Transverse momentum of the muon originating from the $ \tau_{\mu} $ candidate (upper left). Invariant mass of the three pions forming the $ \tau_{\text{3prong}} $ candidate (upper right). Invariant mass of the $ \tau^{+}\tau^{-} $ system (lower left). The $ \Delta\phi(\tau_{\mu},\tau_{\text{3prong}}) $ azimuthal difference (lower right). In all plots, the signal component (magenta histogram) is stacked on top of the background component (green histogram). The sum of signal and background is displayed by a blue line and the shaded area shows the statistical uncertainty. The data are represented with black points and the uncertainty is statistical only. The lower panels show the ratios of data to the signal-plus-background prediction and the shaded bands represent the statistical uncertainty in the prefit expectation. (Figures adapted from Ref. [536].)

png pdf
Figure 107-b:
Transverse momentum of the muon originating from the $ \tau_{\mu} $ candidate (upper left). Invariant mass of the three pions forming the $ \tau_{\text{3prong}} $ candidate (upper right). Invariant mass of the $ \tau^{+}\tau^{-} $ system (lower left). The $ \Delta\phi(\tau_{\mu},\tau_{\text{3prong}}) $ azimuthal difference (lower right). In all plots, the signal component (magenta histogram) is stacked on top of the background component (green histogram). The sum of signal and background is displayed by a blue line and the shaded area shows the statistical uncertainty. The data are represented with black points and the uncertainty is statistical only. The lower panels show the ratios of data to the signal-plus-background prediction and the shaded bands represent the statistical uncertainty in the prefit expectation. (Figures adapted from Ref. [536].)

png pdf
Figure 107-c:
Transverse momentum of the muon originating from the $ \tau_{\mu} $ candidate (upper left). Invariant mass of the three pions forming the $ \tau_{\text{3prong}} $ candidate (upper right). Invariant mass of the $ \tau^{+}\tau^{-} $ system (lower left). The $ \Delta\phi(\tau_{\mu},\tau_{\text{3prong}}) $ azimuthal difference (lower right). In all plots, the signal component (magenta histogram) is stacked on top of the background component (green histogram). The sum of signal and background is displayed by a blue line and the shaded area shows the statistical uncertainty. The data are represented with black points and the uncertainty is statistical only. The lower panels show the ratios of data to the signal-plus-background prediction and the shaded bands represent the statistical uncertainty in the prefit expectation. (Figures adapted from Ref. [536].)

png pdf
Figure 107-d:
Transverse momentum of the muon originating from the $ \tau_{\mu} $ candidate (upper left). Invariant mass of the three pions forming the $ \tau_{\text{3prong}} $ candidate (upper right). Invariant mass of the $ \tau^{+}\tau^{-} $ system (lower left). The $ \Delta\phi(\tau_{\mu},\tau_{\text{3prong}}) $ azimuthal difference (lower right). In all plots, the signal component (magenta histogram) is stacked on top of the background component (green histogram). The sum of signal and background is displayed by a blue line and the shaded area shows the statistical uncertainty. The data are represented with black points and the uncertainty is statistical only. The lower panels show the ratios of data to the signal-plus-background prediction and the shaded bands represent the statistical uncertainty in the prefit expectation. (Figures adapted from Ref. [536].)

png pdf
Figure 108:
The $ \sigma(\gamma\gamma\to\tau^{+}\tau^{-}) $ cross section, measured in a fiducial phase space region at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV. The theoretical predictions [568,569] are computed with leading order accuracy in QED and are represented by the vertical solid lines, which can be compared with the vertical dotted line representing this measurement. The outer blue (inner red) error bars represent the total (statistical) uncertainties, whereas the green hatched bands correspond to the uncertainty in the theoretical predictions, as described in the text. The potential electromagnetic excitation of the outgoing Pb ions is denoted by $ (^{\ast}) $. (Figure adapted from Ref. [536].)

png pdf
Figure 109:
Comparison of the constraints on $ a_{\tau} $ at 68% CL from the analysis in Ref. [536] and the DELPHI experiment at LEP [572]. The projection to the integrated PbPb luminosity expected from the high-luminosity LHC program is included. (Figure adapted from Ref. [536].)

png pdf
Figure 110:
Exclusion limits at 95% CL in the ALP-photon coupling $ g_{\mathrm{a}\gamma} $ vs. ALP mass $ m_\mathrm{a} $ plane, for the operators $ \mathrm{a} F\widetilde{F}/4\Lambda $ assuming ALP coupling to photons only, derived in Refs. [574,580] from measurements at beam dumps [581], in $ \mathrm{e}^+\mathrm{e}^- $ collisions at LEP 1 [580] and LEP 2 [582], and in pp collisions at the LHC [561,583,584], and compared to the limits obtained from Ref. [535]. (Figure adapted from Ref. [535].)
Tables

png pdf
Table 1:
Summary of HI data-taking periods during Runs 1 and 2.

png pdf
Table 2:
Summary of reference pp data-taking periods during Runs 1 and 2. To compare with the nucleon-nucleon-equivalent luminosities from Table 1, it is important to note that the listed integrated luminosities should be divided by factors of either $ \mathrm{A}^2 $ (for the PbPb case) or A (for the pPb case), where $ \mathrm{A}= $ 208 is the Pb mass number.

png pdf
Table 3:
Summary of low-PU pp data-taking periods during Runs 1 and 2.

png pdf
Table 5:
Geometric quantities and their systematic uncertainties averaged over centrality ranges in PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV.

png pdf
Table 6:
Fraction of MB triggered events after event selections in each multiplicity bin, and the average multiplicity of reconstructed tracks per bin with $ |\eta| < $ 2.4 and $ p_{\mathrm{T}} > $ 0.4 GeV, before ($ N_\text{trk}^\text{offline} $) and after ($ N_\text{trk}^\text{corrected} $) acceptance and efficiency corrections, for pPb and PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV and 2.76 TeV, respectively [105].
Summary
Discoveries and insights from high-density QCD studies
This review presents the first comprehensive summary of studies conducted by the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the realm of heavy ion (HI) collisions during the years spanned by Runs 1 (2010-2013) and 2 (2015-2018). The measured processes have shed light on multiple aspects of the physics of high-density quantum chromodynamics (QCD), precision quantum electrodynamics (QED), and even novel searches of phenomena beyond the standard model (BSM). Relative to what was initially envisioned as a compelling HI physics program in CMS, a series of observations and extensions have been achieved, on top of benchmark measurements, that have helped resolve puzzles raised by preceding experimental programs. After successfully addressing experimental challenges (Section 2), measurements in ultrarelativistic HI collisions at the LHC have entered a high-precision era, with major progress in the areas of online event selection and offline physics object reconstruction. The initial state of the nucleons and nuclei before a HI collision strongly influences the subsequent evolution of the created medium. The density of quarks and gluons within a nucleon, as a function of the fraction of the nucleon momentum ($ x $) carried by each parton and the squared transverse momentum transfer ($ Q^2 $), is parameterized in terms of parton distribution functions (PDFs). When the nucleon is embedded in a nucleus, this density is expressed as nuclear PDFs (nPDFs). Proton-lead (pPb) collision data have been used to constrain the quark and gluon nPDFs through measurements of the cross section of electroweak gauge bosons, dijets, and top quark pairs (Section 3). Some of these results have been used as input to the latest nPDF fits, leading to a significant improvement in the precision across an extended phase space region. For studying the small-$ x $ region, which is primarily driven by the evolution of the gluon density, the measurements of forward inclusive jet cross sections in pPb collisions and the cross sections for exclusive vector meson production in pPb and lead-lead (PbPb) collisions have been used. As part of these studies, a technique has been developed to use forward neutron multiplicities in order to unfold the cross sections for exclusive vector meson production in the photon-nucleus frame, giving unprecedented access to the small-$ x $ regime. As expected, the LHC collaborations find a significant increase in the charged particle density and average transverse energy per charged particle compared to those found at RHIC energies, indicating a denser and hotter medium formed at the LHC. The CMS Collaboration has an extensive program for studying such bulk properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions and searching for novel phenomena (Section 4). Taking advantage of the wide pseudorapidity ($ \eta $) coverage of the CMS apparatus, long-range collective particle correlations (``flow'') are observed with unprecedented high precision. At the same time, factorization breaking in flow harmonics ($ v_n $) has been observed and studied for the first time by the CMS Collaboration and has been shown to have a strong sensitivity to the granularity of initial-state fluctuations. The observation of an $ \eta $-dependent factorization breaking has provided sensitivity to the longitudinal dynamics of the QGP. In addition, the shape and size of the systems produced in different colliding systems and at various LHC energies were also investigated via femtoscopic correlation measurements. In relativistic HI collisions leading to QGP formation, the resulting medium may experience intense magnetic fields produced by the colliding ions. If net chiral (left- or right-handed) quarks are present, a localized current can be generated, leading to a charge separation known as the chiral magnetic effect (CME) and, as a separate process, a long-wavelength collective excitation known as a chiral magnetic wave (CMW). In searching for CME and CMW effects, CMS has unambiguously demonstrated that the signals are too small at LHC energies for either of these two phenomena to be observed. The experimental use of hard probes as a way to study the short-wavelength structure of the QGP has greatly advanced during the LHC Runs 1 and 2 (Section 5). With the initial studies, the depletion of particles with high transverse momentum ($ p_{\mathrm{T}} $) observed in two-particle correlations, at BNL RHIC was confirmed to be the result of jet quenching with LHC measurements of dijet asymmetries using fully reconstructed jets. Further evidence comes from the suppression of jet and hadron yields in HI collisions compared to those expected by scaling up the results from pp collisions. The yield suppression is generally expressed in terms of the nuclear modification factor ($ R_{\mathrm{AA}} $) and can be associated with parton energy loss. Subsequent detailed studies of hadrons and jets have provided information regarding the path-length dependence of parton energy loss. The associated production of jets with electroweak bosons has made possible the determination of the absolute magnitude of the jet energy loss and these studies are now applied to test the survivor bias in inclusive jet samples. A multitude of measurements, including those of jet fragmentation functions and jet shapes, have established a qualitative picture in which quenching redistributes jet energy from the high-$ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ jet constituents to softer particles, and from small to large angles relative to the jet axis. Novel background subtraction algorithms and jet grooming techniques (which remove wide-angle soft radiation from a jet) allow the investigation of the early stages (early vacuum) of a parton shower in the QGP, well before its later medium-modified stage. These studies suggest that jet modifications can be sensitive to the earliest splittings in the evolution of the parton shower. However, further investigations are needed to properly account for a bias when selecting broader early-vacuum structures, and hence more heavily quenched jet momenta. The CMS Collaboration has also performed systematic studies (Section 5) of the mass dependence of quark energy loss by comparing the $ R_{\mathrm{AA}} $ and $ v_2 $ results for fully reconstructed light- and heavy-flavor (charm and beauty) hadrons over an unprecedentedly large $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ range. These studies led to unique measurements of $ {\mathrm{B}} $ mesons in heavy ion collisions. The hadronization of heavy-flavor particles has also been examined in detail using various ratios of their yields, including, for the first time, details of the internal structure of exotic hadrons in the presence of the QGP. With five quarkonium states at hand ($ \mathrm{J}/\psi $, $\psi(2\mathrm{S})$, and $ \Upsilon{{(n\mathrm{S})}} $, $ n= $ 1-3 ), measurements of the modification of their production in pPb and PbPb collisions provide detailed data to improve models aiming to describe the interaction of heavy-quark bound states in strongly interacting matter. The study of the collectivity of charged hadrons in high-multiplicity pp and pPb collisions (Section 6) has provided the first observations of long-range correlations similar to those seen in HI collisions. The CMS Collaboration has offered further evidence of collectivity through multiparticle correlation and heavy-flavor meson analyses. The study of multiparticle correlations has been extended to smaller collision systems using ultraperipheral collisions (UPCs), where the separation of the ions in the transverse plane strongly reduces the role of interactions mediated by quarks and gluons. One of the motivations for the small collision system studies was to search for evidence of jet quenching in these systems, to compare to the results obtained in collisions involving two heavy ions. Jet quenching effects have not been observed in pPb collisions at high $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $. In addition to nuclear hadronic interactions, electromagnetic interactions can also be studied in UPCs (Section 7) since heavy ions with energies of several TeV per nucleon can interact through very intense electromagnetic fields. The Lorentz factor of the Pb beam at the LHC determines the maximum quasireal photon energy of approximately 80 GeV, leading to photon-photon collisions of center-of-mass energies up to 160 GeV, i.e.,, similar to those reached at LEP 2 but with $ Z^4 $ enhanced production cross sections. A broad range of precision SM and BSM processes has been studied in these photon-induced interactions, including exclusive high-mass dilepton ($ m_{\ell^{+}\ell^{-}}\gtrsim $ 5 GeV) production as well as the rare processes of light-by-light (LbL ) scattering and $ \tau $ lepton production.

Future physics opportunities at CMS for high-density QCD measurements
The QCD theory, a cornerstone of the standard model (SM), remains a crucial aspect in our understanding of the strong interaction, albeit with lingering questions. The large values of strong coupling ($ \alpha_\mathrm{S} $) at low $ Q^2 $ render the traditional small-$ \alpha_\mathrm{S} $ perturbation theory inapplicable, such that collective phenomena in nuclei are nonperturbative. However, a coordinated application of the QCD parton model for conventional hadrons, an effort to grasp the exotic hadron spectroscopy, and advances from lattice QCD calculations hold promise of a fundamentally improved understanding of the characteristics of nuclei and their interactions and how deconfinement arises. Many unresolved questions remain regarding the precise nature of the initial state from which thermal QCD matter potentially emerges. How the parton density varies across the broad nuclear $ (x, Q^2) $ phase space is still only partially known and, in particular, no unambiguous evidence has yet been found to mark the onset of parton saturation. Additionally, it is not yet quantitatively understood how the collective properties of the quark-gluon plasma emerge at a microscopic level from the interactions among the individual quarks and gluons that make up this medium. Therefore, a crucial aspect of nuclear studies is the exploitation of future opportunities for high-density QCD studies with ion and proton beams. This will allow for the study of cold nuclear matter effects, the onset of nuclear saturation, and the emergence of long-range correlations. Examination of high-$ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ hadrons, fully reconstructed jets, heavy quarkonia, open heavy-flavor particles, as well as novel tools [585] to investigate more detailed aspects [586] of jet quenching, will provide additional information about the strongly coupled QGP, complementing the bulk and collective observables of the soft sector. Long-term initiatives, such as the use of top quarks to unravel the intricacies of jet quenching at different time scales of the QGP evolution, are in their early stages and are projected to rapidly progress with the increased luminosity anticipated in the LHC Run 3 (2022-2025) and beyond. A pilot run of oxygen-oxygen and proton-oxygen collisions will help answer the key prerequisite conditions for the onset of hot-medium effects [587]. It is also important to understand the level at which these effects could be phenomenologically limited by knowledge of nPDFs. At present, there is a lack of experimental oxygen data for comprehensive global nPDF fitting, underscoring the importance of proton-oxygen collisions in ensuring the accuracy of nPDFs for lighter ions. This also has far-reaching implications for modeling ultrahigh-energy (cosmic ray) phenomena, and is crucial for addressing significant unresolved questions in this field [588]. In addition to the larger luminosity, the detector upgrades planned for the CMS experiment in the LHC Run 4 (starting in year 2029) will significantly benefit the HI program. In particular, the increased $ \eta $ acceptance for charged particles resulting from tracker upgrades [589] will be very beneficial for bulk particle measurements. The upgraded Zero Degree Calorimeters [590] will further improve the existing triggering and identification of UPCs. The addition of time-of-flight particle identification capability, enabled by the Minimum Ionizing Particle Timing Detector [591], will allow identification between low-momentum charged hadrons, such as pions, kaons, and protons, which will improve the measurements of heavy-flavored particles and neutral strange hadrons, while improving the prospects for identified jet substructure measurements [592]. Proton-nucleus collisions have been an integral part of the LHC program since the 2011 and 2012 pilot runs. Within collinear factorization, constraints on our knowledge of the nuclear wave functions were extended at high $ Q^2 $ using dijet, heavy gauge boson, and top quark production processes available for the first time in nuclear collisions. Further insights have been gained at lower $ Q^2 $ with heavy-flavor production based on the assumption that the nuclear modification of their yields can be accurately incorporated in global analyses of nPDFs. In Run 2, the increased luminosity and detector improvements allowed for increased statistical precision, expanding the kinematic reach to encompass a broader range of accessible processes. Following the discoveries of collective-like effects in small collision systems, an order of magnitude higher integrated luminosity target for pPb collisions is set for Runs 3 and 4, including a large sample of pp collisions at the highest LHC energy, but with moderate pileup to reach the largest possible multiplicities over a full range of hadronic colliding systems. The large PbPb integrated luminosity in Runs 3 and 4, coupled with high-accuracy theoretical QED calculations and several detector upgrades, will maximize the potential of UPC measurements. Collectively, these factors will broaden the phase space region and overall scope of physics exploration in the studies of low-mass resonances, the continuum, and heavy-flavor mesons in UPC events. The primary goal will be to cover a much wider range of masses: the expected spectrum obtainable by CMS for a 13 nb$^{-1}$ integrated luminosity run can extend to masses up to about 200 GeV, bridging the gap for BSM searches between PbPb and pp collisions (in the latter case, by employing the forward proton tagging technique) and overall extending the physics reach not only for (pseudo)scalar but also for tensor resonances [575]. Interestingly, these high-mass pairs correspond to two-photon interactions in, or in close proximity to the two nuclei, enhancing the effects owing to interactions with the medium and magnetic fields associated with the QGP. Lower masses should be accessible with looser requirements for track and electron $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ and their overall identification quality [593]. Exclusive dimuon production can offer a precision measurement of photon fluxes associated with ion beams, and as such can be used to constrain predictions for all other UPC processes. Additional LbL scattering data will also be crucial in determining the nature of newly discovered resonant structures, such as the X(6900) state [594]. Continuing the LHC HI physics program into the HL-LHC era [595,596] offers the opportunity to collide intermediate-mass nuclei (e.g., oxygen and argon), facilitating the study of the initial stage of ion collisions, small-$ x $ physics, and the determination of nPDFs. Furthermore, higher luminosities will allow vastly improved access to rare probes of the QGP. At the same time, it complements other key research efforts in the nuclear physics QCD community (e.g., ongoing efforts at RHIC [597] and the upcoming Electron-Ion Collider [598]), as well as technical developments in the high-energy and cosmic-ray [546] physics communities. Collectively, these initiatives will be pivotal in deepening our understanding of both QCD and QED, illuminating the intricate nature of matter in the early microseconds of the universe.
References
1 CMS Collaboration The CMS experiment at the CERN LHC JINST 3 (2008) S08004
2 CMS Collaboration The Compact Muon Solenoid: Letter of intent for a general purpose detector at the LHC 1992
CDS
3 G. Baur et al. Heavy ion physics programme in CMS Eur. Phys. J. 32S2 (2004) 69
4 CMS Collaboration CMS physics technical design report: Addendum on high density QCD with heavy ions JPG 34 (2007) 2307
5 R. Pasechnik and M. Šumbera Phenomenological review on quark-gluon plasma: Concepts vs. observations Universe 3 (2017) 7 1611.01533
6 W. Busza, K. Rajagopal, and W. van der Schee Heavy ion collisions: The big picture, and the big questions Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 68 (2018) 339 1802.04801
7 ALICE Collaboration The ALICE experiment - A journey through QCD Submitted to EPJC, 2022 2211.04384
8 ATLAS Collaboration The ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider JINST 3 (2008) S08003
9 LHCb Collaboration The LHCb detector at the LHC JINST 3 (2008) S08005
10 C. A. Salgado et al. Proton-nucleus collisions at the LHC: Scientific opportunities and requirements JPG 39 (2012) 015010 1105.3919
11 J. C. Collins and M. J. Perry Superdense matter: Neutrons or asymptotically free quarks? PRL 34 (1975) 1353
12 N. Cabibbo and G. Parisi Exponential hadronic spectrum and quark liberation PLB 59 (1975) 67
13 J. Engels, F. Karsch, H. Satz, and I. Montvay High temperature SU(2) gluon matter on the lattice PLB 101 (1981) 89
14 E. V. Shuryak Theory of hadronic plasma Sov. Phys. JETP 47 (1978) 212
15 HotQCD Collaboration Chiral crossover in QCD at zero and non-zero chemical potentials PLB 795 (2019) 15 1812.08235
16 S. Borsanyi et al. QCD crossover at finite chemical potential from lattice simulations PRL 125 (2020) 052001 2002.02821
17 F. Gross et al. 50 years of Quantum Chromodynamics EPJC 83 (2023) 1125 2212.11107
18 H. R. Schmidt and J. Schukraft The physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions JPG 19 (1993) 1705
19 U. W. Heinz and M. Jacob Evidence for a new state of matter: An assessment of the results from the CERN lead beam program nucl-th/0002042
20 B. Muller and J. L. Nagle Results from the relativistic heavy ion collider Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 56 (2006) 93 nucl-th/0602029
21 B. Muller, J. Schukraft, and B. Wyslouch First results from Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 62 (2012) 361 1202.3233
22 U. W. Heinz Concepts of heavy ion physics in 2nd CERN-CLAF school of high energy physics, 2004 hep-ph/0407360
23 P. Braun-Munzinger and J. Stachel The quest for the quark-gluon plasma Nature 448 (2007) 302
24 J. W. Harris and B. Müller ''QGP Signatures'' Revisited 2308.05743
25 C. Gale, S. Jeon, and B. Schenke Hydrodynamic modeling of heavy-ion collisions Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 28 (2013) 1340011 1301.5893
26 U. Heinz and R. Snellings Collective flow and viscosity in relativistic heavy-ion collisions Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 63 (2013) 123 1301.2826
27 J. E. Bernhard, J. S. Moreland, and S. A. Bass Bayesian estimation of the specific shear and bulk viscosity of quark-gluon plasma Nature Phys. 15 (2019) 1113
28 N. Herrmann, J. P. Wessels, and T. Wienold Collective flow in heavy ion collisions Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 49 (1999) 581
29 BRAHMS Collaboration Quark gluon plasma and color glass condensate at RHIC? The perspective from the BRAHMS experiment Nucl. Phys. A 757 (2005) 1 nucl-ex/0410020
30 PHENIX Collaboration Formation of dense partonic matter in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC: Experimental evaluation by the PHENIX collaboration Nucl. Phys. A 757 (2005) 184 nucl-ex/0410003
31 PHOBOS Collaboration The PHOBOS perspective on discoveries at RHIC Nucl. Phys. A 757 (2005) 28 nucl-ex/0410022
32 STAR Collaboration Experimental and theoretical challenges in the search for the quark gluon plasma: The STAR Collaboration's critical assessment of the evidence from RHIC collisions Nucl. Phys. A 757 (2005) 102 nucl-ex/0501009
33 H. Song, Y. Zhou, and K. Gajdosova Collective flow and hydrodynamics in large and small systems at the LHC Nucl. Sci. Tech. 28 (2017) 99 1703.00670
34 K. Dusling, W. Li, and B. Schenke Novel collective phenomena in high-energy proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 25 (2016) 1630002 1509.07939
35 J. L. Nagle and W. A. Zajc Small system collectivity in relativistic hadronic and nuclear collisions Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 68 (2018) 211 1801.03477
36 A. Accardi et al. Hard probes in heavy ion collisions at the LHC: Jet physics hep-ph/0310274
37 L. Apolinàrio, Y.-J. Lee, and M. Winn Heavy quarks and jets as probes of the QGP Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 127 (2022) 103990 2203.16352
38 C. Andrés et al. Energy versus centrality dependence of the jet quenching parameter $ \hat{q} $ at RHIC and LHC: a new puzzle? EPJC 76 (2016) 475 1606.04837
39 J. M. Jowett and M. Schaumann Overview of heavy ions in LHC Run 2 in 9th LHC Operations Evian Workshop, 2019
40 J. M. Jowett et al. First run of the LHC as a heavy ion collider in Proceedings of the 2nd International Particle Accelerator Conference (IPAC 2011), C. Petit-Jean-Genaz, ed
IPAC (2011) 1837
41 J. M. Jowett et al. Heavy ions in 2012 and the program up to 2022 in Chamonix 2012 Workshop on LHC Performance, CERN Yellow Reports: Conference Proceedings, CERN, 2012
CERN-2012-006.200
42 J. Jowett et al. Proton-nucleus collisions in the LHC in Proc. 4th International Particle Accelerator Conference, 2013
MOODB201
43 J. Jowett et al. The 2015 heavy-ion run of the LHC in Proc. 7th International Particle Accelerator Conference, 2016
TUPMW027
44 J. Jowett et al. The 2016 proton-nucleus run of the LHC in Proc. 8th International Particle Accelerator Conference, 2017
link
45 CMS Collaboration CMS luminosity measurement using nucleus-nucleus collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 5.02 TeV in 2018 CMS Physics Analysis Summary, 2022
CMS-PAS-LUM-18-001
CMS-PAS-LUM-18-001
46 CMS Collaboration CMS luminosity measurement using 2016 proton-nucleus collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 8.16 TeV CMS Physics Analysis Summary, 2018
CMS-PAS-LUM-17-002
CMS-PAS-LUM-17-002
47 J. Jowett et al. The 2018 heavy-ion run of the LHC in Proc. 10th International Particle Accelerator Conference, 2019
WEYYPLM2
48 D. G. d'Enterria Experimental tests of small-$ x $ QCD in Proceedings of the 9th Workshop on Non-Perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics, 42th Rencontres de Moriond, B. Mueller, M. A. Rotondo, and C.-I. Tan, eds, 2007
link
0706.4182
49 E. Iancu and R. Venugopalan The color glass condensate and high-energy scattering in QCD in Quark-gluon plasma 4, R. C. Hwa and X.-N. Wang, eds, 2003
link
hep-ph/0303204
50 S. Abreu et al. Heavy ion collisions at the lhc: Last call for predictions in Proc. Workshop on heavy ion collisions at the LHC: Last call for predictions, 2008
link
0711.0974
51 N. Armesto Predictions for the heavy ion program at the Large Hadron Collider in Quark-gluon plasma 4, R. C. Hwa and X.-N. Wang, eds, 2010
link
0903.1330
52 D. G. d'Enterria High-$ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ leading hadron suppression in nuclear collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 20-200 GeV: Data versus parton energy loss models EPJC 43 (2005) 295 nucl-ex/0504001
53 M. Djordjevic and M. Gyulassy Where is the charm quark energy loss at RHIC? PLB 560 (2003) 37 nucl-th/0302069
54 C. Lourenço Open questions in quarkonium and electromagnetic probes Nucl. Phys. A 783 (2007) 451 nucl-ex/0612014
55 PHENIX Collaboration $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ suppression at forward rapidity in AuAu collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 200 GeV PRC 84 (2011) 054912 1103.6269
56 M. Grabiak et al. Electroweak physics at ultrarelativistic heavy ion colliders JPG 15 (1989) 25
57 K. Hencken, D. Trautmann, and G. Baur Photon-photon luminosities in relativistic heavy ion collisions at LHC energies Z. Phys. C 68 (1995) 473 nucl-th/9503004
58 C. A. Bertulani and G. Baur Electromagnetic processes in relativistic heavy ion collisions Phys. Rept. 163 (1988) 299
59 F. Krauss, M. Greiner, and G. Soff Photon and gluon induced processes in relativistic heavy ion collisions Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 39 (1997) 503
60 G. Baur, K. Hencken, and D. Trautmann Photon-photon physics in very peripheral collisions of relativistic heavy ions JPG 24 (1998) 1657 hep-ph/9804348
61 G. Baur Physics opportunities in ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions at LHC in Proc. Workshop on Electromagnetic Probes of Fundamental Physics, 2001 hep-ph/0112239
62 C. A. Bertulani, S. R. Klein, and J. Nystrand Physics of ultraperipheral nuclear collisions Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 55 (2005) 271 nucl-ex/0502005
63 A. J. Baltz The physics of ultraperipheral collisions at the LHC Phys. Rept. 458 (2008) 1 0706.3356
64 G. Baur et al. Coherent gamma-gamma and gamma-A interactions in very peripheral collisions at relativistic ion colliders Phys. Rept. 364 (2002) 359 hep-ph/0112211
65 A. A. Natale Resonance production in peripheral heavy ion collisions Mod. Phys. Lett. A 9 (1994) 2075
66 A. J. Baltz, S. R. Klein, and J. Nystrand Coherent vector meson photoproduction with nuclear breakup in relativistic heavy ion collisions PRL 89 (2002) 012301 nucl-th/0205031
67 S. R. Klein and J. Nystrand Photoproduction of quarkonium in proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions PRL 92 (2004) 142003 hep-ph/0311164
68 K. J. Abraham, R. Laterveer, J. A. M. Vermaseren, and D. Zeppenfeld Higgs production by heavy ion scattering PLB 251 (1990) 186
69 D. d'Enterria and J.-P. Lansberg Study of Higgs boson production and its $ \mathrm{b} \overline{\mathrm{b}} $ decay in gamma-gamma processes in proton-nucleus collisions at the LHC PRD 81 (2010) 014004 0909.3047
70 S. R. Klein, J. Nystrand, and R. Vogt Photoproduction of top in peripheral heavy ion collisions EPJC 21 (2001) 563 hep-ph/0005157
71 S. C. Ahern, J. W. Norbury, and W. J. Poyser Graviton production in relativistic heavy ion collisions PRD 62 (2000) 116001 gr-qc/0009059
72 A. A. Natale Glueballs in peripheral heavy ion collisions PLB 362 (1995) 177 hep-ph/9509280
73 J. Rau, B. Muller, W. Greiner, and G. Soff Production of supersymmetric particles in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions JPG 16 (1990) 211
74 L. D. Almeida, A. A. Natale, S. F. Novaes, and O. J. P. Eboli Nonstandard gamma gamma $ \to $ lepton+ lepton- processes in relativistic heavy ion collisions PRD 44 (1991) 118
75 M. Greiner, M. Vidovic, and G. Soff Electromagnetic production of Higgs bosons, SUSY particles, glueballs and mesons in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions PRC 47 (1993) 2288
76 CMS Collaboration Event displays of PbPb collision events in the CMS detector at the end of 2018 2018
CDS
77 CMS Collaboration Strategies and performance of the CMS silicon tracker alignment during LHC Run 2 NIM A 1037 (2022) 166795 CMS-TRK-20-001
2111.08757
78 CMS Collaboration Description and performance of track and primary-vertex reconstruction with the CMS tracker JINST 9 (2014) P10009 CMS-TRK-11-001
1405.6569
79 Tracker Group of the CMS Collaboration The CMS Phase-1 pixel detector upgrade JINST 16 (2021) P02027 2012.14304
80 CMS Collaboration Track impact parameter resolution for the full pseudo rapidity coverage in the 2017 dataset with the CMS Phase-1 pixel detector CMS Detector Performance Summary CMS-DP-2020-049, 2020
CDS
81 CMS Collaboration Performance of CMS muon reconstruction in pp collision events at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}}= $ 7 TeV JINST 7 (2012) P10002 CMS-MUO-10-004
1206.4071
82 CMS Collaboration Performance of the CMS muon detector and muon reconstruction with proton-proton collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}}= $ 13 TeV JINST 13 (2018) P06015 CMS-MUO-16-001
1804.04528
83 CMS Collaboration Particle-flow reconstruction and global event description with the CMS detector JINST 12 (2017) P10003 CMS-PRF-14-001
1706.04965
84 CMS Collaboration Performance of photon reconstruction and identification with the CMS detector in proton-proton collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}} = $ 8 TeV JINST 10 (2015) P08010 CMS-EGM-14-001
1502.02702
85 CMS Collaboration Electron and photon reconstruction and identification with the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC JINST 16 (2021) P05014 CMS-EGM-17-001
2012.06888
86 CMS Collaboration ECAL 2016 refined calibration and Run 2 summary plots CMS detector performance summary, 2020
CDS
87 M. Cacciari, G. P. Salam, and G. Soyez The anti-$ k_{\mathrm{T}} $ jet clustering algorithm JHEP 04 (2008) 063 0802.1189
88 M. Cacciari, G. P. Salam, and G. Soyez FastJet user manual EPJC 72 (2012) 1896 1111.6097
89 A. Giammanco The fast simulation of the CMS experiment J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 513 (2014) 022012
90 S. Abdullin et al. The fast simulation of the CMS detector at LHC J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 331 (2011) 032049
91 CMS Collaboration Jet energy scale and resolution in the CMS experiment in pp collisions at 8 TeV JINST 12 (2017) P02014 CMS-JME-13-004
1607.03663
92 CMS Collaboration Precision luminosity measurement in proton-proton collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}}= $ 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016 at CMS EPJC 81 (2021) 800 CMS-LUM-17-003
2104.01927
93 CMS Collaboration CMS luminosity calibration for the pp reference run at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}}= $ 5.02 TeV CMS Physics Analysis Summary, 2016
CMS-PAS-LUM-16-001
CMS-PAS-LUM-16-001
94 CMS Collaboration Luminosity measurement in proton-proton collisions at 5.02 TeV in 2017 at CMS CMS Physics Analysis Summary, 2021
CMS-PAS-LUM-19-001
CMS-PAS-LUM-19-001
95 CMS Collaboration CMS: The TriDAS project. Technical design report, Vol. 1: The trigger systems 2000
CDS
96 CMS Collaboration Performance of the CMS Level-1 trigger in proton-proton collisions at $ \sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV JINST 15 (2020) P10017 CMS-TRG-17-001
2006.10165
97 CMS Collaboration CMS: The TriDAS project. Technical design report, Vol. 2: Data acquisition and high-level trigger 2002
CDS
98 CMS Collaboration CMS technical design report for the level-1 trigger upgrade 2013
CDS
99 Trigger and DAQ Groups of the CMS Collaboration The CMS high level trigger EPJC 46 (2006) 605 hep-ex/0512077
100 CMS Collaboration CMS high level trigger technical report, CERN, 2007
CDS
101 CMS Collaboration Performance of the high-level trigger system at CMS in LHC run-2 IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 68 (2021) 2035
102 M. Hasan Enhancing hadron jet reconstruction in the CMS Level-1 trigger using machine learning. PhD thesis, Baylor U, 2022
103 CMS Collaboration Observation and studies of jet quenching in PbPb collisions at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV PRC 84 (2011) 024906 CMS-HIN-10-004
1102.1957
104 CMS Collaboration Measurement of isolated photon production in pp and PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 2.76 TeV PLB 710 (2012) 256 CMS-HIN-11-002
1201.3093
105 CMS Collaboration Multiplicity and transverse momentum dependence of two- and four-particle correlations in pPb and PbPb collisions PLB 724 (2013) 213 CMS-HIN-13-002
1305.0609
106 CMS Collaboration Dependence on pseudorapidity and on centrality of charged hadron production in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV JHEP 08 (2011) 141 CMS-HIN-10-001
1107.4800
107 CMS Collaboration The beam scintillation counter trigger system for CMS CMS Detector Performance Summary, 2010
link
108 Z.-W. Lin et al. A multi-phase transport model for relativistic heavy ion collisions PRC 72 (2005) 064901 nucl-th/0411110
109 I. P. Lokhtin and A. M. Snigirev A model of jet quenching in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions and high-$ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ hadron spectra at RHIC EPJC 45 (2006) 211 hep-ph/0506189
110 S. R. Klein et al. \textscSTARlight: A Monte Carlo simulation program for ultra-peripheral collisions of relativistic ions Comput. Phys. Commun. 212 (2017) 258 1607.03838
111 S. Roesler, R. Engel, and J. Ranft Photoproduction off nuclei and point-like photon interactions. Part 2: Particle production hep-ph/9611379
112 T. Sjöstrand et al. An introduction to PYTHIA8.2 Comput. Phys. Commun. 191 (2015) 159 1410.3012
113 GEANT4 Collaboration GEANT 4--a simulation toolkit NIM A 506 (2003) 250
114 M. L. Miller, K. Reygers, S. J. Sanders, and P. Steinberg Glauber modeling in high energy nuclear collisions Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 57 (2007) 205 nucl-ex/0701025
115 C. Loizides, J. Kamin, and D. d'Enterria Improved Monte Carlo Glauber predictions at present and future nuclear colliders PRC 97 (2018) 054910 1710.07098
116 ALICE Collaboration Centrality dependence of the charged-particle multiplicity density at midrapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at $ {\sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV PRL 106 (2011) 032301 1012.1657
117 PHOBOS Collaboration Importance of correlations and fluctuations on the initial source eccentricity in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions PRC 77 (2008) 014906 0711.3724
118 T. Pierog et al. EPOS LHC: Test of collective hadronization with data measured at the CERN Large Hadron Collider PRC 92 (2015) 034906 1306.0121
119 X.-N. Wang and M. Gyulassy HIJING: A Monte Carlo model for multiple jet production in pp, pA and AA collisions PRD 44 (1991) 3501
120 CMS Collaboration Studies of dijet transverse momentum balance and pseudorapidity distributions in pPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV EPJC 74 (2014) 2951 CMS-HIN-13-001
1401.4433
121 CMS Collaboration Tracking and L1 trigger performance in 2018 and 2022 PbPb conditions CMS detector performance summary, CMS-DP-2023-011, 2023
CDS
122 CMS Collaboration Charged-particle nuclear modification factors in XeXe collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.44 TeV JHEP 10 (2018) 138 CMS-HIN-18-004
1809.00201
123 CMS Collaboration Measurement of the elliptic anisotropy of charged particles produced in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 2.76 TeV PRC 87 (2013) 014902 CMS-HIN-10-002
1204.1409
124 CMS Collaboration Performance of the CMS muon trigger system in proton-proton collisions at $ \sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV JINST 16 (2021) P07001 CMS-MUO-19-001
2102.04790
125 CMS Collaboration Performance of CMS muon reconstruction in heavy ion collisions CMS Physics Analysis Summary, 2023
CMS-PAS-MUO-21-001
CMS-PAS-MUO-21-001
126 W. Adam, R. Frühwirth, A. Strandlie and T. Todorov Reconstruction of electrons with the Gaussian-sum filter in the CMS tracker at the LHC JPG 31 (2005) N9
127 CMS Collaboration Energy calibration and resolution of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter in pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}}= $ 7 TeV JINST 8 (2013) P09009 CMS-EGM-11-001
1306.2016
128 CMS Collaboration Study of Z production in PbPb and pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 2.76 TeV in the dimuon and dielectron decay channels JHEP 03 (2015) 022 CMS-HIN-13-004
1410.4825
129 CMS Collaboration Performance of electron reconstruction and selection with the CMS detector in proton-proton collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}}= $ 8 TeV JINST 10 (2015) P06005 CMS-EGM-13-001
1502.02701
130 H. Voss, A. Höcker, J. Stelzer, and F. Tegenfeldt TMVA, the toolkit for multivariate data analysis with ROOT in Proc. XIth International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT), 2007
link
physics/0703039
131 CMS Collaboration The production of isolated photons in PbPb and pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV JHEP 07 (2020) 116 CMS-HIN-18-016
2003.12797
132 M. Cacciari FastJet: A code for fast $k_{\mathrm{T}}$ clustering, and more in Proc. Deep inelastic scattering, 14th International Workshop, DIS 2006, 2006 hep-ph/0607071
133 CMS Collaboration Pileup mitigation at CMS in 13 TeV data JINST 15 (2020) P09018 CMS-JME-18-001
2003.00503
134 CMS Collaboration Updates to constituent subtraction in heavy ions at CMS CMS detector performance summary, CMS-DP-2018-024, 2018
CDS
135 O. Kodolova, I. Vardanian, A. Nikitenko, and A. Oulianov The performance of the jet identification and reconstruction in heavy ions collisions with CMS detector EPJC 50 (2007) 117
136 ALICE Collaboration Azimuthal anisotropy of charged jet production in $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV Pb-Pb collisions PLB 753 (2016) 511 1509.07334
137 P. Berta, M. Spousta, D. W. Miller, and R. Leitner Particle-level pileup subtraction for jets and jet shapes JHEP 06 (2014) 092 1403.3108
138 P. Berta, L. Masetti, D. W. Miller, and M. Spousta Pileup and underlying event mitigation with iterative constituent subtraction JHEP 08 (2019) 175 1905.03470
139 CMS Collaboration First measurement of large area jet transverse momentum spectra in heavy-ion collisions JHEP 05 (2021) 284 CMS-HIN-18-014
2102.13080
140 D. d'Enterria and J. Rojo Quantitative constraints on the gluon distribution function in the proton from collider isolated-photon data NPB 860 (2012) 311 1202.1762
141 CMS Collaboration Measurement of prompt $ \mathrm{D^0} $ meson azimuthal anisotropy in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 5.02 TeV PRL 120 (2018) 202301 CMS-HIN-16-007
1708.03497
142 CMS Collaboration Measurement of prompt $ \mathrm{D^0} $ and $ \overline{\mathrm{D}}^{0} $ meson azimuthal anisotropy and search for strong electric fields in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PLB 816 (2021) 136253 CMS-HIN-19-008
2009.12628
143 CMS Collaboration Probing charm quark dynamics via multiparticle correlations in Pb-Pb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PRL 129 (2022) 022001 CMS-HIN-20-001
2112.12236
144 CMS Collaboration Measurements of azimuthal anisotropy of nonprompt $ \mathrm{D^0} $ mesons in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PLB 850 (2024) 138389 CMS-HIN-21-003
2212.01636
145 CMS Collaboration Identification of heavy-flavour jets with the CMS detector in pp collisions at 13 TeV JINST 13 (2018) P05011 CMS-BTV-16-002
1712.07158
146 CMS Collaboration Evidence for top quark production in nucleus-nucleus collisions PRL 125 (2020) 222001 CMS-HIN-19-001
2006.11110
147 G. Altarelli and G. Parisi Asymptotic freedom in parton language NPB 126 (1977) 298
148 Y. L. Dokshitzer Calculation of the structure functions for deep inelastic scattering and $ \mathrm{e}^+\mathrm{e}^- $ annihilation by perturbation theory in quantum chromodynamics. Sov. Phys. JETP 46 (1977) 641
149 V. N. Gribov and L. N. Lipatov Deep inelastic e p scattering in perturbation theory Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 15 (1972) 438
150 CMS Collaboration Observation of nuclear modifications in $ \mathrm{W}^{\pm} $ boson production in pPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV PLB 800 (2020) 135048 CMS-HIN-17-007
1905.01486
151 R. Boughezal et al. Color singlet production at NNLO in MCFM EPJC 77 (2017) 7 1605.08011
152 S. Dulat et al. New parton distribution functions from a global analysis of quantum chromodynamics PRD 93 (2016) 033006 1506.07443
153 K. J. Eskola, P. Paakkinen, H. Paukkunen, and C. A. Salgado EPPS16: Nuclear parton distributions with LHC data EPJC 77 (2017) 163 1612.05741
154 K. Kovarik et al. nCTEQ15 - Global analysis of nuclear parton distributions with uncertainties in the CTEQ framework PRD 93 (2016) 085037 1509.00792
155 N. Armesto Nuclear shadowing JPG 32 (2006) R367 hep-ph/0604108
156 CMS Collaboration Study of W boson production in pPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PLB 750 (2015) 565 CMS-HIN-13-007
1503.05825
157 K. J. Eskola, P. Paakkinen, H. Paukkunen, and C. A. Salgado EPPS21: a global QCD analysis of nuclear PDFs EPJC 82 (2022) 413 2112.12462
158 A. Kusina et al. Impact of LHC vector boson production in heavy ion collisions on strange PDFs EPJC 80 (2020) 968 2007.09100
159 R. Abdul Khalek et al. nNNPDF3.0: evidence for a modified partonic structure in heavy nuclei EPJC 82 (2022) 507 2201.12363
160 I. Helenius, M. Walt, and W. Vogelsang NNLO nuclear parton distribution functions with electroweak-boson production data from the LHC PRD 105 (2022) 094031 2112.11904
161 CMS Collaboration Study of Drell-Yan dimuon production in proton-lead collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV JHEP 05 (2021) 182 CMS-HIN-18-003
2102.13648
162 S. Alioli, P. Nason, C. Oleari, and E. Re A general framework for implementing NLO calculations in shower Monte Carlo programs: the POWHEG BOX JHEP 06 (2010) 043 1002.2581
163 S. Alioli, P. Nason, C. Oleari, and E. Re NLO vector-boson production matched with shower in POWHEG JHEP 07 (2008) 060 0805.4802
164 CMS Collaboration Study of Z boson production in pPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PLB 759 (2016) 36 CMS-HIN-15-002
1512.06461
165 D. d'Enterria, K. Krajczàr, and H. Paukkunen Top quark production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at LHC energies and beyond PLB 746 (2015) 64 1501.05879
166 CMS Collaboration Observation of top quark production in proton-nucleus collisions PRL 119 (2017) 242001 CMS-HIN-17-002
1709.07411
167 M. Czakon, P. Fiedler, and A. Mitov Total top quark pair production cross section at hadron colliders through $ O(\alpha_\mathrm{S}^4) $ PRL 110 (2013) 252004 1303.6254
168 J. M. Campbell and R. K. Ellis MCFM for the Tevatron and the LHC NPB Proc. Suppl. 205-206 (2010) 10 1007.3492
169 J. L. Albacete et al. Predictions for cold nuclear matter effects in pPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV Nucl. Phys. A 972 (2018) 18 1707.09973
170 D. de Florian, R. Sassot, P. Zurita, and M. Stratmann Global analysis of nuclear parton distributions PRD 85 (2012) 074028 1112.6324
171 K. J. Eskola, H. Paukkunen, and C. A. Salgado EPS09: A new generation of NLO and LO nuclear parton distribution functions JHEP 04 (2009) 065 0902.4154
172 CMS Collaboration Constraining gluon distributions in nuclei using dijets in proton-proton and proton-lead collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PRL 121 (2018) 062002 CMS-HIN-16-003
1805.04736
173 European Muon Collaboration The ratio of the nucleon structure functions $ F2_n $ for iron and deuterium PLB 123 (1983) 275
174 B. Alver, M. Baker, C. Loizides, and P. Steinberg The PHOBOS Glauber Monte Carlo 0805.4411
175 D. d'Enterria and C. Loizides Progress in the Glauber model at collider energies Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 71 (2021) 315 2011.14909
176 P. Aurenche et al. A new critical study of photon production in hadronic collisions PRD 73 (2006) 094007 hep-ph/0602133
177 CMS Collaboration Study of W boson production in PbPb and pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV PLB 715 (2012) 66 CMS-HIN-11-008
1205.6334
178 CMS Collaboration Study of Z boson production in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV PRL 106 (2011) 212301 CMS-HIN-10-003
1102.5435
179 CMS Collaboration Constraints on the initial state of Pb-Pb collisions via measurements of Z-boson yields and azimuthal anisotropy at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PRL 127 (2021) 102002 CMS-HIN-19-003
2103.14089
180 C. Loizides and A. Morsch Absence of jet quenching in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions PLB 773 (2017) 408 1705.08856
181 ATLAS Collaboration Z boson production in Pb+Pb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 5.02 TeV measured by the ATLAS experiment PLB 802 (2020) 135262 1910.13396
182 ALICE Collaboration $ \mathrm{W}^{\pm} $-boson production in p-Pb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV and PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV JHEP 05 (2023) 036 2204.10640
183 K. J. Eskola, I. Helenius, M. Kuha, and H. Paukkunen Shadowing in inelastic nucleon-nucleon cross section? PRL 125 (2020) 212301 2003.11856
184 E. A. Kuraev, L. N. Lipatov, and V. S. Fadin The Pomeranchuk singularity in nonabelian gauge theories Sov. Phys. JETP 45 (1977) 199
185 I. I. Balitsky and L. N. Lipatov The Pomeranchuk singularity in quantum chromodynamics Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 28 (1978) 822
186 L. N. Lipatov The bare pomeron in quantum chromodynamics Sov. Phys. JETP 63 (1986) 904
187 V. S. Fadin and L. N. Lipatov BFKL pomeron in the next-to-leading approximation PLB 429 (1998) 127 hep-ph/9802290
188 M. van de Klundert Search for gluon saturation in proton-lead collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 5.02 TeV with the very forward CASTOR calorimeter at the CMS experiment PhD thesis, University of Antwerp, CERN-THESIS-2018-087, 2018
link
189 S. Ostapchenko QGSJET-II: Towards reliable description of very high energy hadronic interactions NPB Proc. Suppl. 151 (2006) 143 hep-ph/0412332
190 A. van Hameren KaTie: For parton-level event generation with $ k_{\mathrm{T}} $-dependent initial states Comput. Phys. Commun. 224 (2018) 371 1611.00680
191 J. L. Albacete, P. Guerrero Rodriguez, and Y. Nara Ultraforward particle production from color glass condensate and Lund fragmentation PRD 94 (2016) 054004 1605.08334
192 CMS Collaboration Measurement of inclusive very forward jet cross sections in proton-lead collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV JHEP 05 (2019) 043 CMS-FSQ-17-001
1812.01691
193 H. Mäntysaari and H. Paukkunen Saturation and forward jets in proton-lead collisions at the LHC PRD 100 (2019) 114029 1910.13116
194 C. F. von Weizsacker Radiation emitted in collisions of very fast electrons Z. Phys. 88 (1934) 612
195 E. J. Williams Nature of the high-energy particles of penetrating radiation and status of ionization and radiation formulae PR 45 (1934) 729
196 S. J. Brodsky et al. Diffractive leptoproduction of vector mesons in QCD PRD 50 (1994) 3134 hep-ph/9402283
197 A. D. Martin, C. Nockles, M. G. Ryskin, and T. Teubner Small $ x $ gluon from exclusive J/psi production PLB 662 (2008) 252 0709.4406
198 CMS Collaboration Measurement of exclusive $ \Upsilon $ photoproduction from protons in pPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 5.02 TeV EPJC 79 (2019) 277 CMS-FSQ-13-009
1809.11080
199 CMS Collaboration Measurement of exclusive $ \rho(770)^0 $ photoproduction in ultraperipheral pPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV EPJC 79 (2019) 702 CMS-FSQ-16-007
1902.01339
200 C. A. Flett et al. How to include exclusive $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ production data in global PDF analyses PRD 101 (2020) 094011 1908.08398
201 ALICE Collaboration Coherent $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ photoproduction in ultra-peripheral Pb-Pb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV PLB 718 (2013) 1273 1209.3715
202 ALICE Collaboration Charmonium and $ \mathrm{e}^+\mathrm{e}^- $ pair photoproduction at midrapidity in ultra-peripheral Pb-Pb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV EPJC 73 (2013) 2617 1305.1467
203 CMS Collaboration Coherent $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ photoproduction in ultra-peripheral PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV with the CMS experiment PLB 772 (2017) 489 CMS-HIN-12-009
1605.06966
204 V. Guzey, M. Strikman, and M. Zhalov Disentangling coherent and incoherent quasielastic $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ photoproduction on nuclei by neutron tagging in ultraperipheral ion collisions at the LHC EPJC 74 (2014) 2942 1312.6486
205 V. Guzey, E. Kryshen, M. Strikman, and M. Zhalov Evidence for nuclear gluon shadowing from the ALICE measurements of PbPb ultraperipheral exclusive $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ production PLB 726 (2013) 290 1305.1724
206 V. Guzey, E. Kryshen, and M. Zhalov Coherent photoproduction of vector mesons in ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions: Update for Run 2 at the CERN Large Hadron Collider PRC 93 (2016) 055206 1602.01456
207 B. L. Berman and S. C. Fultz Measurements of the giant dipole resonance with monoenergetic photons Rev. Mod. Phys. 47 (1975) 713
208 CMS Collaboration Observation of forward neutron multiplicity dependence of dimuon acoplanarity in ultraperipheral PbPb Collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 5.02 TeV PRL 127 (2021) 122001 CMS-HIN-19-014
2011.05239
209 O. Surànyi et al. Performance of the CMS zero degree calorimeters in pPb collisions at the LHC JINST 16 (2021) P05008 2102.06640
210 CMS Collaboration Probing small Bjorken-$ x $ nuclear gluonic structure via coherent $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ photoproduction in ultraperipheral PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PRL 131 (2023) 262301 CMS-HIN-22-002
2303.16984
211 A. Łuszczak and W. Schäfer Coherent photoproduction of $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the color dipole approach PRC 99 (2019) 044905 1901.07989
212 ALICE Collaboration Coherent $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ photoproduction at forward rapidity in ultra-peripheral Pb-Pb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PLB 798 (2019) 134926 1904.06272
213 H. Mäntysaari and B. Schenke Probing subnucleon scale fluctuations in ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions PLB 772 (2017) 832 1703.09256
214 J. Cepila, J. G. Contreras, and M. Krelina Coherent and incoherent $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ photonuclear production in an energy-dependent hot-spot model PRC 97 (2018) 024901 1711.01855
215 D. Bendova, J. Cepila, J. G. Contreras, and M. Matas Photonuclear $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ production at the LHC: proton-based versus nuclear dipole scattering amplitudes PLB 817 (2021) 136306 2006.12980
216 K. J. Eskola et al. Exclusive $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ photoproduction in ultraperipheral Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider calculated at next-to-leading order perturbative QCD PRC 106 (2022) 035202 2203.11613
217 H. Mäntysaari and J. Penttala Complete calculation of exclusive heavy vector meson production at next-to-leading order in the dipole picture JHEP 08 (2022) 247 2204.14031
218 K. J. Eskola et al. Next-to-leading order perturbative QCD predictions for exclusive $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ photoproduction in oxygen-oxygen and lead-lead collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider PRC 107 (2023) 044912 2210.16048
219 L. D. Landau On the multiparticle production in high-energy collisions Izv. Akad. Nauk Ser. Fiz. 17 (1953) 51
220 PHENIX Collaboration Systematic studies of the centrality and $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} $ dependence of the $ \text{d} E_\text{T}/\text{d}\eta $ and $ \text{d}N^\text{ch}/\text{d}\eta $ in heavy ion collisions at midrapidity PRC 71 (2005) 034908 nucl-ex/0409015
221 CMS Collaboration Pseudorapidity distributions of charged hadrons in xenon-xenon collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.44 TeV PLB 799 (2019) 135049 CMS-HIN-17-006
1902.03603
222 CMS Collaboration Measurement of the pseudorapidity and centrality dependence of the transverse energy density in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV PRL 109 (2012) 152303 CMS-HIN-11-003
1205.2488
223 PHOBOS Collaboration System size, energy and centrality dependence of pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in relativistic heavy ion collisions PRL 102 (2009) 142301 0709.4008
224 PHOBOS Collaboration Charged-particle multiplicity and pseudorapidity distributions measured with the PHOBOS detector in Au+Au, Cu+Cu, d+Au, and p+p collisions at ultrarelativistic energies PRC 83 (2011) 024913 1011.1940
225 CMS Collaboration Transverse-momentum and pseudorapidity distributions of charged hadrons in pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}} = $ 7 TeV PRL 105 (2010) 022002 CMS-QCD-10-006
1005.3299
226 CMS Collaboration Transverse-momentum and pseudorapidity distributions of charged hadrons in pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}} = $ 0.9 and 2.36 TeV JHEP 02 (2010) 041 CMS-QCD-09-010
1002.0621
227 ALICE Collaboration Charged-particle multiplicity measurement in proton-proton collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}}= $ 0.9 and 2.36 TeV with ALICE at LHC EPJC 68 (2010) 89 1004.3034
228 UA5 Collaboration Scaling of pseudorapidity distributions at c.m. energies up to 0.9 TeV Z. Phys. C 33 (1986) 1
229 UA1 Collaboration A study of the general characteristics of proton-antiproton collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}} = $ 0.2 to 0.9 TeV NPB 335 (1990) 261
230 CMS Collaboration Long-range and short-range dihadron angular correlations in central PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV JHEP 07 (2011) 076 CMS-HIN-11-001
1105.2438
231 CMS Collaboration Centrality dependence of dihadron correlations and azimuthal anisotropy harmonics in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 2.76 TeV EPJC 72 (2012) 2012 CMS-HIN-11-006
1201.3158
232 CMS Collaboration Measurement of higher-order harmonic azimuthal anisotropy in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV PRC 89 (2014) 044906 CMS-HIN-11-005
1310.8651
233 CMS Collaboration Studies of azimuthal dihadron correlations in ultra-central PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV JHEP 02 (2014) 088 CMS-HIN-12-011
1312.1845
234 CMS Collaboration Evidence for transverse momentum and pseudorapidity dependent event plane fluctuations in PbPb and pPb collisions PRC 92 (2015) 034911 CMS-HIN-14-012
1503.01692
235 CMS Collaboration Non-Gaussian elliptic-flow fluctuations in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PLB 789 (2019) 643 CMS-HIN-16-019
1711.05594
236 ALICE Collaboration Harmonic decomposition of two-particle angular correlations in Pb-Pb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV PLB 708 (2012) 249 1109.2501
237 C. Shen, Z. Qiu, and U. Heinz Shape and flow fluctuations in ultracentral PbPb collisions at the energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider PRC 92 (2015) 014901 1502.04636
238 G. Nijs and W. van der Schee Predictions and postdictions for relativistic lead and oxygen collisions with the computational simulation code Trajectum PRC 106 (2022) 044903 2110.13153
239 D. T. Son and A. O. Starinets Viscosity, black holes, and quantum field theory Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 57 (2007) 95 0704.0240
240 L. Yan, J.-Y. Ollitrault, and A. M. Poskanzer Azimuthal anisotropy distributions in high-energy collisions PLB 742 (2015) 290 1408.0921
241 R. S. Bhalerao, M. Luzum, and J.-Y. Ollitrault Understanding anisotropy generated by fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions PRC 84 (2011) 054901 1107.5485
242 P. Romatschke and U. Romatschke Viscosity information from relativistic nuclear collisions: How perfect is the fluid observed at RHIC? PRL 99 (2007) 172301 0706.1522
243 G. Giacalone, J. Noronha-Hostler, and J.-Y. Ollitrault Relative flow fluctuations as a probe of initial state fluctuations PRC 95 (2017) 054910 1702.01730
244 CMS Collaboration Charged-particle angular correlations in XeXe collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 5.44 TeV PRC 100 (2019) 044902 CMS-HIN-18-001
1901.07997
245 J. S. Moreland, J. E. Bernhard, and S. A. Bass Alternative ansatz to wounded nucleon and binary collision scaling in high-energy nuclear collisions PRC 92 (2015) 011901 1412.4708
246 F. G. Gardim, F. Grassi, M. Luzum, and J.-Y. Ollitrault Breaking of factorization of two-particle correlations in hydrodynamics PRC 87 (2013) 031901 1211.0989
247 U. Heinz, Z. Qiu, and C. Shen Fluctuating flow angles and anisotropic flow measurements PRC 87 (2013) 034913 1302.3535
248 CMS Collaboration Principal-component analysis of two-particle azimuthal correlations in PbPb and pPb collisions at CMS PRC 96 (2017) 064902 CMS-HIN-15-010
1708.07113
249 P. Bozek, W. Broniowski, and J. Moreira Torqued fireballs in relativistic heavy-ion collisions PRC 83 (2011) 034911 1011.3354
250 B. Schenke and S. Schlichting 3D glasma initial state for relativistic heavy ion collisions PRC 94 (2016) 044907 1605.07158
251 L. Yan and J.-Y. Ollitrault $ \nu_4, \nu_5, \nu_6, \nu_7 $: nonlinear hydrodynamic response versus LHC data PLB 744 (2015) 82 1502.02502
252 J. Qian, U. W. Heinz, and J. Liu Mode-coupling effects in anisotropic flow in heavy-ion collisions PRC 93 (2016) 064901 1602.02813
253 D. Teaney and L. Yan Nonlinearities in the harmonic spectrum of heavy ion collisions with ideal and viscous hydrodynamics PRC 86 (2012) 044908 1206.1905
254 J. Qian, U. Heinz, R. He, and L. Huo Differential flow correlations in relativistic heavy-ion collisions PRC 95 (2017) 054908 1703.04077
255 G. Giacalone, L. Yan, and J.-Y. Ollitrault Nonlinear coupling of flow harmonics: Hexagonal flow and beyond PRC 97 (2018) 054905 1803.00253
256 W. Zhao, H.-J. Xu, and H. Song Collective flow in 2.76 A TeV and 5.02 A TeV Pb+Pb collisions EPJC 77 (2017) 645 1703.10792
257 S. McDonald et al. Hydrodynamic predictions for Pb+Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV PRC 95 (2017) 064913 1609.02958
258 CMS Collaboration Mixed higher-order anisotropic flow and nonlinear response coefficients of charged particles in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 and 5.02 TeV EPJC 80 (2020) 534 CMS-HIN-17-005
1910.08789
259 M. A. Lisa, S. Pratt, R. Soltz, and U. Wiedemann Femtoscopy in relativistic heavy ion collisions Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 55 (2005) 357 nucl-ex/0505014
260 R. Hanbury-Brown and R. Q. Twiss A new type of interferometer for use in radio astronomy Phil. Magazine 45 (1954) 663
261 R. Hanbury-Brown and R. Q. Twiss Correlation between photons in two coherent beams of light Nature 177 (1956) 27
262 R. Hanbury-Brown and R. Q. Twiss A test of a new type of stellar interferometer on Sirius Nature 178 (1956) 1046
263 G. Goldhaber et al. Influence of Bose-Einstein statistics on the anti-proton proton annihilation process PR 120 (1960) 300
264 J. D. Bjorken Highly relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions: The central rapidity region PRD 27 (1983) 140
265 CMS Collaboration First measurement of Bose-Einstein correlations in proton-proton collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}} = $ 0.9 and 2.36 TeV at the LHC PRL 105 (2010) 032001 CMS-QCD-10-003
1005.3294
266 CMS Collaboration Measurement of Bose-Einstein correlations in pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}} = $ 0.9 and 7 TeV JHEP 05 (2011) 029 CMS-QCD-10-023
1101.3518
267 CMS Collaboration Bose-Einstein correlations in pp, pPb, and PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 0.9-7 TeV PRC 97 (2018) 064912 CMS-FSQ-14-002
1712.07198
268 CMS Collaboration Bose-Einstein correlations of charged hadrons in proton-proton collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}} = $ 13 TeV JHEP 03 (2020) 014 CMS-FSQ-15-009
1910.08815
269 CMS Collaboration Two-particle Bose-Einstein correlations and their Lévy parameters in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PRC 109 (2024) 024914 CMS-HIN-21-011
2306.11574
270 T. Csorgo et al. Bose-Einstein correlations for Levy stable source distributions EPJC 36 (2004) 67 nucl-th/0310042
271 CMS Collaboration Observation of correlated azimuthal anisotropy Fourier harmonics in pp and pPb collisions at the LHC PRL 120 (2018) 092301 CMS-HIN-16-022
1709.09189
272 A. Bzdak, B. Schenke, P. Tribedy, and R. Venugopalan Initial state geometry and the role of hydrodynamics in proton-proton, proton-nucleus and deuteron-nucleus collisions PRC 87 (2013) 064906
273 L. McLerran, M. Praszalowicz, and B. Schenke Transverse momentum of protons, pions and kaons in high multiplicity pp and pA collisions: Evidence for the color glass condensate? Nucl. Phys. A 916 (2013) 210
274 T. Csorgo and J. Zimanyi Pion interferometry for strongly correlated space-time and momentum space Nucl. Phys. A 517 (1990) 588
275 L3 Collaboration Test of the $ \tau $-model of Bose-Einstein correlations and reconstruction of the source function in hadronic Z-boson decay at LEP EPJC 71 (2011) 1648 1105.4788
276 M. Chojnacki, W. Florkowski, and T. Csörgö Formation of hubble-like flow in little bangs PRC 71 (2005) 044902 nucl-th/0410036
277 PHENIX Collaboration Bose-Einstein correlations of charged pion pairs in Au+Au collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 200 GeV PRL 93 (2004) 152302 nucl-ex/0401003
278 STAR Collaboration Pion interferometry in Au+Au collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 200 GeV PRC 71 (2005) 044906 nucl-ex/0411036
279 STAR Collaboration Pion interferometry in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 62.4 and 200 GeV PRC 80 (2009) 024905 0903.1296
280 PHENIX Collaboration Systematic study of charged-pion and kaon femtoscopy in Au+Au collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 200 GeV PRC 92 (2015) 034914 1504.05168
281 M. Csanàd, S. Lökös, and M. Nagy Expanded empirical formula for Coulomb final state interaction in the presence of Lévy sources Phys. Part. Nucl. 51 (2020) 238 1910.02231
282 PHENIX Collaboration Lévy-stable two-pion Bose-Einstein correlations in $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 200 GeV Au+Au collisions PRC 97 (2018) 064911 1709.05649
283 R. L. Jaffe Perhaps a stable dihyperon PRL 38 (1977) 195
284 D. B. Kaplan and A. E. Nelson Kaon condensation in dense matter Nucl. Phys. A 479 (1988) 273c
285 J. Schaffner-Bielich, M. Hanauske, H. Stoecker, and W. Greiner Phase transition to hyperon matter in neutron stars PRL 89 (2002) 171101 astro-ph/0005490
286 K. Morita, T. Furumoto, and A. Ohnishi $ \Lambda\Lambda $ interaction from relativistic heavy-ion collisions PRC 91 (2015) 024916 1408.6682
287 CMS Collaboration $ \mathrm{K^0_S} $ and $ \Lambda(\overline{\Lambda}) $ two-particle femtoscopic correlations in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV Submitted to PLB, 2023 CMS-HIN-21-006
2301.05290
288 D. Kharzeev Parity violation in hot QCD: Why it can happen, and how to look for it PLB 633 (2006) 260 hep-ph/0406125
289 D. E. Kharzeev, L. D. McLerran, and H. J. Warringa The effects of topological charge change in heavy ion collisions: 'event by event P and CP violation' Nucl. Phys. A 803 (2008) 227 0711.0950
290 W. Li and G. Wang Chiral magnetic effects in nuclear collisions Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 70 (2020) 293 2002.10397
291 S. A. Voloshin Parity violation in hot QCD: How to detect it PRC 70 (2004) 057901 hep-ph/0406311
292 STAR Collaboration Observation of charge-dependent azimuthal correlations and possible local strong parity violation in heavy ion collisions PRC 81 (2010) 054908 0909.1717
293 CMS Collaboration Observation of long-range near-side angular correlations in proton-proton collisions at the LHC JHEP 09 (2010) 091 CMS-QCD-10-002
1009.4122
294 CMS Collaboration Measurement of long-range near-side two-particle angular correlations in pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}} = $ 13 TeV PRL 116 (2016) 172302 CMS-FSQ-15-002
1510.03068
295 CMS Collaboration Evidence for collectivity in pp collisions at the LHC PLB 765 (2017) 193 CMS-HIN-16-010
1606.06198
296 CMS Collaboration Observation of long-range near-side angular correlations in proton-lead collisions at the LHC PLB 718 (2013) 795 CMS-HIN-12-015
1210.5482
297 CMS Collaboration Long-range two-particle correlations of strange hadrons with charged particles in pPb and PbPb collisions at LHC energies PLB 742 (2015) 200 CMS-HIN-14-002
1409.3392
298 CMS Collaboration Evidence for collective multiparticle correlations in p-Pb collisions PRL 115 (2015) 012301 CMS-HIN-14-006
1502.05382
299 CMS Collaboration Observation of charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in $ \mathrm{p} $-Pb collisions and its implication for the search for the chiral magnetic effect PRL 118 (2017) 122301 CMS-HIN-16-009
1610.00263
300 ALICE Collaboration Charge separation relative to the reaction plane in Pb-Pb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 2.76 TeV PRL 110 (2013) 012301 1207.0900
301 CMS Collaboration Constraints on the chiral magnetic effect using charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in pPb and PbPb collisions at the CERN large hadron collider PRC 97 (2018) 044912 CMS-HIN-17-001
1708.01602
302 B. Alver and G. Roland Collision geometry fluctuations and triangular flow in heavy-ion collisions PRC 81 (2010) 054905 1003.0194
303 ATLAS Collaboration Measurement of event-plane correlations in $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 2.76 TeV lead-lead collisions with the ATLAS detector PRC 90 (2014) 024905 1403.0489
304 J. Schukraft, A. Timmins, and S. A. Voloshin Ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions: event shape engineering PLB 719 (2013) 394 1208.4563
305 Y. Burnier, D. E. Kharzeev, J. Liao, and H.-U. Yee Chiral magnetic wave at finite baryon density and the electric quadrupole moment of quark-gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions PRL 107 (2011) 052303 1103.1307
306 D. E. Kharzeev and H.-U. Yee Chiral magnetic wave PRD 83 (2011) 085007 1012.6026
307 D. E. Kharzeev, J. Liao, S. A. Voloshin, and G. Wang Chiral magnetic and vortical effects in high-energy nuclear collisions--A status report Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 88 (2016) 1 1511.04050
308 CMS Collaboration Probing the chiral magnetic wave in pPb and PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV using charge-dependent azimuthal anisotropies PRC 100 (2019) 064908 CMS-HIN-16-017
1708.08901
309 A. Bzdak and P. Bozek Contributions to the event-by-event charge asymmetry dependence for the elliptic flow of $ \pi^{+} $ and $ \pi^{-} $ in heavy-ion collisions PLB 726 (2013) 239 1303.1138
310 U. Gürsoy et al. Charge-dependent flow induced by magnetic and electric fields in heavy ion collisions PRC 98 (2018) 055201 1806.05288
311 A. Dubla, U. Gürsoy, and R. Snellings Charge-dependent flow as evidence of strong electromagnetic fields in heavy-ion collisions Mod. Phys. Lett. A 35 (2020) 2050324 2009.09727
312 P. Braun-Munzinger Quarkonium production in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions: Suppression versus enhancement JPG 34 (2007) S471 nucl-th/0701093
313 F.-M. Liu and S.-X. Liu Quark-gluon plasma formation time and direct photons from heavy ion collisions PRC 89 (2014) 034906 1212.6587
314 S. K. Das et al. Directed flow of charm quarks as a witness of the initial strong magnetic field in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions PLB 768 (2017) 260 1608.02231
315 PHENIX Collaboration Suppression of hadrons with large transverse momentum in central Au+Au collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 130 GeV PRL 88 (2002) 022301 nucl-ex/0109003
316 STAR Collaboration Centrality dependence of high $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ hadron suppression in Au+Au collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 130 GeV PRL 89 (2002) 202301 nucl-ex/0206011
317 ATLAS Collaboration Observation of a centrality-dependent dijet asymmetry in lead-lead collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC PRL 105 (2010) 252303 1011.6182
318 CMS Collaboration Determination of jet energy calibration and transverse momentum resolution in CMS JINST 6 (2011) P11002 CMS-JME-10-011
1107.4277
319 CMS Collaboration Jet momentum dependence of jet quenching in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV PLB 712 (2012) 176 CMS-HIN-11-013
1202.5022
320 CMS Collaboration Comparing transverse momentum balance of b jet pairs in pp and PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 5.02 TeV JHEP 03 (2018) 181 CMS-HIN-16-005
1802.00707
321 CMS Collaboration Measurement of transverse momentum relative to dijet systems in PbPb and pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 2.76 TeV JHEP 01 (2016) 006 CMS-HIN-14-010
1509.09029
322 CMS Collaboration Measurement of inclusive jet cross sections in pp and PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 2.76 TeV PRC 96 (2017) 015202 CMS-HIN-13-005
1609.05383
323 K. C. Zapp JEWEL 2.0.0: directions for use EPJC 74 (2014) 2762 1311.0048
324 R. Kunnawalkam Elayavalli and K. C. Zapp Medium response in JEWEL and its impact on jet shape observables in heavy ion collisions JHEP 07 (2017) 141 1707.01539
325 J. Casalderrey-Solana et al. A hybrid strong/weak coupling approach to jet quenching JHEP 10 (2014) 019 1405.3864
326 D. Pablos Jet suppression from a small to intermediate to large radius PRL 124 (2020) 052301 1907.12301
327 B. Schenke, C. Gale, and S. Jeon MARTINI: An event generator for relativistic heavy-ion collisions PRC 80 (2009) 054913 0909.2037
328 Y. He et al. Interplaying mechanisms behind single inclusive jet suppression in heavy-ion collisions PRC 99 (2019) 054911 1809.02525
329 Y. Tachibana, N.-B. Chang, and G.-Y. Qin Full jet in quark-gluon plasma with hydrodynamic medium response PRC 95 (2017) 044909 1701.07951
330 N.-B. Chang and G.-Y. Qin Full jet evolution in quark-gluon plasma and nuclear modification of jet production and jet shape in Pb+Pb collisions at 2.76ATeV at the CERN Large Hadron Collider PRC 94 (2016) 024902 1603.01920
331 N.-B. Chang, Y. Tachibana, and G.-Y. Qin Nuclear modification of jet shape for inclusive jets and $ \gamma $-jets at the LHC energies PLB 801 (2020) 135181 1906.09562
332 WA98 Collaboration Transverse mass distributions of neutral pions from Pb-208 induced reactions at 158-A-GeV EPJC 23 (2002) 225 nucl-ex/0108006
333 D. G. d'Enterria Indications of suppressed high-$ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ hadron production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN-SPS PLB 596 (2004) 32 nucl-ex/0403055
334 PHENIX Collaboration Neutral pion production with respect to centrality and reaction plane in Au$ + $Au collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 200 GeV PRC 87 (2013) 034911 1208.2254
335 STAR Collaboration Transverse momentum and collision energy dependence of high $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ hadron suppression in Au+Au collisions at ultrarelativistic energies PRL 91 (2003) 172302 nucl-ex/0305015
336 NA49 Collaboration High transverse momentum hadron spectra at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 17.3 GeV, in Pb+Pb and p+p collisions, measured by CERN-NA49 PRC 77 (2008) 034906 0711.0547
337 ALICE Collaboration Centrality dependence of charged particle production at large transverse momentum in Pb-Pb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV PLB 720 (2013) 52 1208.2711
338 ATLAS Collaboration Measurement of charged-particle spectra in Pb+Pb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC JHEP 09 (2015) 050 1504.04337
339 CMS Collaboration Study of high-$ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ charged particle suppression in PbPb compared to pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 2.76 TeV EPJC 72 (2012) 1945 CMS-HIN-10-005
1202.2554
340 CMS Collaboration Charged-particle nuclear modification factors in PbPb and pPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV JHEP 04 (2017) 039 CMS-HIN-15-015
1611.01664
341 Y.-T. Chien et al. Jet quenching from QCD evolution PRD 93 (2016) 074030 1509.02936
342 E. Bianchi et al. The $ x $ and $ Q^2 $ dependence of $ \hat{q} $, quasi-particles and the JET puzzle 1702.00481
343 J. Xu, J. Liao, and M. Gyulassy Bridging soft-hard transport properties of quark-gluon plasmas with CUJET3.0 JHEP 02 (2016) 169 1508.00552
344 J. Noronha-Hostler, B. Betz, J. Noronha, and M. Gyulassy Event-by-event hydrodynamics+jet energy loss: A solution to the $ R_{\mathrm{AA}} \otimes v_2 $ puzzle PRL 116 (2016) 252301 1602.03788
345 M. Gyulassy and X.-n. Wang Multiple collisions and induced gluon Bremsstrahlung in QCD NPB 420 (1994) 583 nucl-th/9306003
346 E. Braaten and M. H. Thoma Energy loss of a heavy quark in the quark-gluon plasma PRD 44 (1991) R2625
347 C. Loizides, J. Nagle, and P. Steinberg Improved version of the PHOBOS Glauber Monte Carlo SoftwareX 1-2 (2015) 13 1408.2549
348 F. Arleo and G. Falmagne Quenching of hadron spectra in XeXe and PbPb collisions at the LHC PoS HardProbes2018 (2019) 075 1902.05032
349 CMS Collaboration Azimuthal anisotropy of charged particles with transverse momentum up to 100 GeV/$c$ in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PLB 776 (2018) 195 CMS-HIN-15-014
1702.00630
350 CMS Collaboration Azimuthal anisotropy of charged particles at high transverse momenta in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 2.76 TeV PRL 109 (2012) 022301 CMS-HIN-11-012
1204.1850
351 CMS Collaboration Azimuthal anisotropy of dijet events in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV JHEP 07 (2023) 139 CMS-HIN-21-002
2210.08325
352 CMS Collaboration Study of jet quenching with isolated-photon+jet correlations in PbPb and pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PLB 785 (2018) 14 CMS-HIN-16-002
1711.09738
353 CMS Collaboration Study of jet quenching with $ \mathrm{Z}+ $jet correlations in Pb-Pb and pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 5.02 TeV PRL 119 (2017) 082301 CMS-HIN-15-013
1702.01060
354 CMS Collaboration Measurement of quark- and gluon-like jet fractions using jet charge in PbPb and pp collisions at 5.02 TeV JHEP 07 (2020) 115 CMS-HIN-18-018
2004.00602
355 R. D. Field and R. P. Feynman A parametrization of the properties of quark jets NPB 136 (1978) 1
356 Fermilab-Serpukhov-Moscow-Michigan Collaboration Net charge in deep inelastic antineutrino - nucleon scattering PLB 91 (1980) 311
357 J. P. Berge et al. Quark jets from antineutrino interactions 1: Net charge and factorization in the quark jets NPB 184 (1981) 13
358 Aachen-Bonn-CERN-Munich-Oxford Collaboration Multiplicity distributions in neutrino - hydrogen interactions NPB 181 (1981) 385
359 Aachen-Bonn-CERN-Munich-Oxford Collaboration Charge properties of the hadronic system in $ \nu\mathrm{p} $ and $ \overline{\nu}\mathrm{p} $ interactions PLB 112 (1982) 88
360 European Muon Collaboration Quark charge retention in final state hadrons from deep inelastic muon scattering PLB 144 (1984) 302
361 Amsterdam-Bologna-Padua-Pisa-Saclay-Turin Collaboration Charged hadron multiplicities in high-energy anti-muon neutrino $ \mathrm{n} $ and anti-muon neutrino $ \mathrm{p} $ interactions Z. Phys. C 11 (1982) 283
362 R. Erickson et al. Charge retention in deep inelastic electroproduction PRL 42 (1979) 822
363 H. T. Li and I. Vitev Jet charge modification in dense QCD matter PRD 101 (2020) 076020 1908.06979
364 CMS Collaboration Evidence of b-jet quenching in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 2.76 TeV PRL 113 (2014) 132301 CMS-HIN-12-003
1312.4198
365 L. Apolinàrio, J. G. Milhano, G. P. Salam, and C. A. Salgado Probing the time structure of the quark-gluon plasma with top quarks PRL 120 (2018) 232301 1711.03105
366 CMS Collaboration Measurement of jet fragmentation in PbPb and pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV PRC 90 (2014) 024908 CMS-HIN-12-013
1406.0932
367 X.-N. Wang, Z. Huang, and I. Sarcevic Jet quenching in the opposite direction of a tagged photon in high-energy heavy ion collisions PRL 77 (1996) 231 hep-ph/9605213
368 X.-N. Wang and Z. Huang Study medium induced parton energy loss in gamma+jet events of high-energy heavy ion collisions PRC 55 (1997) 3047 hep-ph/9701227
369 X.-N. Wang and Y. Zhu Medium modification of $ \gamma $-jets in high-energy heavy-ion collisions PRL 111 (2013) 062301 1302.5874
370 J. Casalderrey-Solana et al. Predictions for boson-jet observables and fragmentation function ratios from a hybrid strong/weak coupling model for jet quenching JHEP 03 (2016) 053 1508.00815
371 CMS Collaboration Observation of medium-induced modifications of jet fragmentation in Pb-Pb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV using isolated photon-tagged jets PRL 121 (2018) 242301 CMS-HIN-16-014
1801.04895
372 ZEUS Collaboration Measurement of jet shapes in high $ Q^{2} $ deep inelastic scattering at HERA EPJC 8 (1999) 367 hep-ex/9804001
373 H1 Collaboration Jets and energy flow in photon - proton collisions at HERA Z. Phys. C 70 (1996) 17 hep-ex/9511012
374 D0 Collaboration Transverse energy distributions within jets in $ \mathrm{p}\overline{\mathrm{p}} $ collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}} = $ 1.8 TeV PLB 357 (1995) 500
375 CDF Collaboration A measurement of jet shapes in $ \mathrm{p}\overline{\mathrm{p}} $ collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}} = $ 1.8 TeV PRL 70 (1993) 713
376 ATLAS Collaboration Study of jet shapes in inclusive jet production in pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}}= $ 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector PRD 83 (2011) 052003 1101.0070
377 CMS Collaboration Modification of jet shapes in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV PLB 730 (2014) 243 CMS-HIN-12-002
1310.0878
378 CMS Collaboration Correlations between jets and charged particles in PbPb and pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 2.76 TeV JHEP 02 (2016) 156 CMS-HIN-14-016
1601.00079
379 CMS Collaboration Decomposing transverse momentum balance contributions for quenched jets in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV JHEP 11 (2016) 055 CMS-HIN-15-011
1609.02466
380 CMS Collaboration Jet properties in PbPb and pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV JHEP 05 (2018) 006 CMS-HIN-16-020
1803.00042
381 CMS Collaboration In-medium modification of dijets in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV Submitted to JHEP, 2021
JHEP 05 (2021) 116
CMS-HIN-19-013
2101.04720
382 Y.-T. Chien and I. Vitev Towards the understanding of jet shapes and cross sections in heavy ion collisions using soft-collinear effective theory JHEP 05 (2016) 023 1509.07257
383 J. Brewer, K. Rajagopal, A. Sadofyev, and W. Van Der Schee Evolution of the mean jet shape and dijet asymmetry distribution of an ensemble of holographic jets in strongly coupled plasma JHEP 02 (2018) 015 1710.03237
384 J. Casalderrey-Solana et al. Angular structure of jet quenching within a hybrid strong/weak coupling model JHEP 03 (2017) 135 1609.05842
385 CMS Collaboration Jet shapes of isolated photon-tagged jets in Pb-Pb and pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PRL 122 (2019) 152001 CMS-HIN-18-006
1809.08602
386 CMS Collaboration Using Z boson events to study parton-medium interactions in Pb-Pb collisions PRL 128 (2022) 122301 CMS-HIN-19-006
2103.04377
387 J. G. Milhano and K. C. Zapp Origins of the di-jet asymmetry in heavy ion collisions EPJC 76 (2016) 288 1512.08107
388 J. Brewer, A. Sadofyev, and W. van der Schee Jet shape modifications in holographic dijet systems PLB 820 (2021) 136492 1809.10695
389 A. J. Larkoski, S. Marzani, G. Soyez, and J. Thaler Soft Drop JHEP 05 (2014) 146 1402.2657
390 CMS Collaboration Measurement of the splitting function in pp and Pb-Pb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PRL 120 (2018) 142302 CMS-HIN-16-006
1708.09429
391 CMS Collaboration Measurement of the groomed jet mass in PbPb and pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV JHEP 10 (2018) 161 CMS-HIN-16-024
1805.05145
392 CMS Collaboration Nuclear modification factor of $ \mathrm{D^0} $ mesons in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PLB 782 (2018) 474 CMS-HIN-16-001
1708.04962
393 CMS Collaboration Measurement of the $ {\mathrm{B}^{\pm}} $ meson nuclear modification factor in Pb-Pb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 5.02 TeV PRL 119 (2017) 152301 CMS-HIN-16-011
1705.04727
394 CMS Collaboration Studies of beauty suppression via nonprompt $ \mathrm{D^0} $ mesons in Pb-Pb collisions at $ Q^2 = $ 4 GeV$^2 $ PRL 123 (2019) 022001 CMS-HIN-16-016
1810.11102
395 CMS Collaboration Measurement of prompt and nonprompt charmonium suppression in PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV EPJC 78 (2018) 509 CMS-HIN-16-025
1712.08959
396 Y. L. Dokshitzer, V. A. Khoze, and S. I. Troian On specific QCD properties of heavy quark fragmentation ('dead cone') JPG 17 (1991) 1602
397 CMS Collaboration Measurements of the azimuthal anisotropy of prompt and nonprompt charmonia in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV JHEP 10 (2023) 115 CMS-HIN-21-008
2305.16928
398 S. A. Voloshin, A. M. Poskanzer, A. Tang, and G. Wang Elliptic flow in the Gaussian model of eccentricity fluctuations PLB 659 (2008) 537 0708.0800
399 A. Bilandzic, R. Snellings, and S. Voloshin Flow analysis with cumulants: Direct calculations PRC 83 (2011) 044913 1010.0233
400 B. Betz et al. Cumulants and nonlinear response of high $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ harmonic flow at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PRC 95 (2017) 044901 1609.05171
401 B. Svetitsky Diffusion of charmed quarks in the quark-gluon plasma PRD 37 (1988) 2484
402 M. He, H. van Hees, and R. Rapp Heavy-quark diffusion in the quark-gluon plasma Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 130 (2023) 104020 2204.09299
403 Y. Xu et al. Data-driven analysis for the temperature and momentum dependence of the heavy-quark diffusion coefficient in relativistic heavy-ion collisions PRC 97 (2018) 014907 1710.00807
404 CMS Collaboration Studies of charm quark diffusion inside jets using PbPb and pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PRL 125 (2020) 102001 CMS-HIN-18-007
1911.01461
405 B. Andersson, G. Gustafson, G. Ingelman and T. Sjöstrand Parton fragmentation and string dynamics Phys. Rept. 97 (1983) 31
406 V. Greco, C. M. Ko, and P. Levai Parton coalescence and anti-proton/pion anomaly at RHIC PRL 90 (2003) 202302 nucl-th/0301093
407 R. J. Fries, V. Greco, and P. Sorensen Coalescence models for hadron formation from quark gluon plasma Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 58 (2008) 177 0807.4939
408 CMS Collaboration Measurement of $ \mathrm{B}_{s}^{0} $ meson production in pp and PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PLB 796 (2019) 168 CMS-HIN-17-008
1810.03022
409 CMS Collaboration Study of charm hadronization with prompt $ \Lambda_{c}^{+} $ baryons in proton-proton and lead-lead collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV JHEP 01 (2024) 128 CMS-HIN-21-004
2307.11186
410 CMS Collaboration Observation of $ \mathrm{B}_{s}^{0} $ mesons and measurement of the $ \mathrm{B}_{s}^{0} $/$ {\mathrm{B}^{+}} $ yield ratio in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PLB 829 (2022) 137062 CMS-HIN-19-011
2109.01908
411 CMS Collaboration Observation of the $ \mathrm{B}_{c}^{+} $ meson in PbPb and pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV and measurement of its nuclear modification factor PRL 128 (2022) 252301 CMS-HIN-20-004
2201.02659
412 CMS Collaboration Production of $ \Lambda_{c}^{+} $ baryons in proton-proton and lead-lead collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PLB 803 (2020) 135328 CMS-HIN-18-009
1906.03322
413 CMS Collaboration Evidence for X(3872) in Pb-Pb collisions and studies of its prompt production at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PRL 128 (2022) 032001 CMS-HIN-19-005
2102.13048
414 J. R. Christiansen and P. Z. Skands String formation beyond leading colour JHEP 08 (2015) 003 1505.01681
415 V. Minissale, S. Plumari, and V. Greco Charm hadrons in pp collisions at LHC energy within a coalescence plus fragmentation approach PLB 821 (2021) 136622 2012.12001
416 M. He and R. Rapp Charm-baryon production in proton-proton collisions PLB 795 (2019) 117 1902.08889
417 M. He and R. Rapp Hadronization and charm-hadron ratios in heavy-ion collisions PRL 124 (2020) 042301 1905.09216
418 M. Benzke et al. Prompt neutrinos from atmospheric charm in the general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme JHEP 12 (2017) 021 1705.10386
419 B. Kniehl, G. Kramer, I. Schienbein, and H. Spiesberger $ \Lambda_{c}^{+} $ production in pp collisions with a new fragmentation function PRD 101 (2020) 114021 2004.04213
420 LHCb Collaboration Measurement of $ f_s / f_u $ variation with proton-proton collision energy and B-meson kinematics PRL 124 (2020) 122002 1910.09934
421 M. He, R. J. Fries, and R. Rapp Heavy flavor at the large hadron collider in a strong coupling approach PLB 735 (2014) 445 1401.3817
422 S. Cao et al. Charmed hadron chemistry in relativistic heavy-ion collisions PLB 807 (2020) 133561 1911.00456
423 J. Song, H.-h. Li, and F.-l. Shao New feature of low $ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ charm quark hadronization in pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}}= $ 2.76 TeV EPJC 78 (2018) 344 1801.09402
424 ExHIC Collaboration Studying exotic hadrons in heavy ion collisions PRC 84 (2011) 064910 1107.1302
425 H. Zhang et al. Deciphering the nature of X(3872) in heavy ion collisions PRL 126 (2021) 012301 2004.00024
426 B. Wu, X. Du, M. Sibila, and R. Rapp $ X(3872) $ transport in heavy-ion collisions Eur. Phys. J. A 57 (2021) 122 2006.09945
427 CMS Collaboration Measurement of the X(3872) production cross section via decays to $ \mathrm{J}/\psi \pi^{+} \pi^{-} $ in pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}} = $ 7 TeV JHEP 04 (2013) 154 CMS-BPH-11-011
1302.3968
428 ATLAS Collaboration Measurements of $ \psi(2\mathrm{S}) $ and $ X(3872) \to \mathrm{J}/\psi\pi^{+}\pi^{-} $ production in pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}} = $ 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector JHEP 01 (2017) 117 1610.09303
429 LHCb Collaboration Determination of the X(3872) meson quantum numbers PRL 110 (2013) 222001 1302.6269
430 T. Matsui and H. Satz $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ suppression by quark-gluon plasma formation PLB 178 (1986) 416
431 S. Digal, P. Petreczky, and H. Satz Quarkonium feed down and sequential suppression PRD 64 (2001) 094015 hep-ph/0106017
432 F. Karsch, D. Kharzeev, and H. Satz Sequential charmonium dissociation PLB 637 (2006) 75 hep-ph/0512239
433 NA38 Collaboration $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $, $ \psi(2\mathrm{S}) $ and Drell-Yan production in S-U interactions at 200 GeV per nucleon PLB 449 (1999) 128
434 NA50 Collaboration Evidence for deconfinement of quarks and gluons from the $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ suppression pattern measured in Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS PLB 477 (2000) 28
435 NA60 Collaboration $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ production in indium-indium collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon PRL 99 (2007) 132302
436 NA50 Collaboration $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ and $ \psi(2\mathrm{S}) $ production and their normal nuclear absorption in proton-nucleus collisions at 400 GeV EPJC 48 (2006) 329 nucl-ex/0612012
437 NA50 Collaboration Charmonium production and nuclear absorption in p-A interactions at 450 GeV EPJC 33 (2004) 31
438 E866/NuSea Collaboration Measurement of $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ and $ \psi(2\mathrm{S}) $ suppression in p-A collisions at 800 GeV PRL 84 (2000) 3256 nucl-ex/9909007
439 PHENIX Collaboration Measurement of the relative yields of $ \psi(2\mathrm{S}) $ to $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ mesons produced at forward and backward rapidity in $ \mathrm{p}{+}\mathrm{p} $, $ \mathrm{p}+ $Al, $ \mathrm{p}+ $Au, and $ ^{3} $He$ + $Au collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 200 GeV PRC 95 (2017) 034904 1609.06550
440 C. Lourenço , R. Vogt, and H. Wöhri Energy dependence of $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ absorption in proton-nucleus collisions JHEP 02 (2009) 014 0901.3054
441 PHENIX Collaboration Measurement of $ \psi(2\mathrm{S}) $ nuclear modification at backward and forward rapidity in $ \mathrm{p}{+}\mathrm{p} $, $ \mathrm{p}+ $Al, and $ \mathrm{p}+ $Au collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 200 GeV PRC 105 (2022) 064912 2202.03863
442 LHCb Collaboration Charmonium production in $ \mathrm{p}\textrm{Ne} $ collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 68.5 GeV EPJC 83 (2023) 625 2211.11645
443 LHCb Collaboration Study of $ \chi _{{\mathrm {b}}} $ meson production in pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}}= $ 7 and 8 TeV and observation of the decay $ \chi _{{\mathrm {b}}}\mathrm {(3P)} \to \Upsilon \mathrm {(3S)} {\gamma } $ EPJC 74 (2014) 3092 1407.7734
444 P. Faccioli, C. Lourenço , M. Araújo, and J. Seixas Universal kinematic scaling as a probe of factorized long-distance effects in high-energy quarkonium production EPJC 78 (2018) 118 1802.01102
445 J. Boyd, S. Thapa, and M. Strickland Transverse momentum dependent feed-down fractions for bottomonium production PRD 108 (2023) 094024 2307.03841
446 R. L. Workman et al. Review of particle physics PTEP 2022 (2022) 083C01
447 P. Faccioli, C. Lourenço , J. Seixas, and H. Wöhri Study of $ \psi(2\mathrm{S}) $ and $ \chi_{c} $ decays as feed-down sources of $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ hadro-production JHEP 10 (2008) 004 0809.2153
448 J.-P. Lansberg New observables in inclusive production of quarkonia Phys. Rept. 889 (2020) 1 1903.09185
449 R. L. Thews, M. Schroedter, and J. Rafelski Enhanced $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ production in deconfined quark matter PRC 63 (2001) 054905 hep-ph/0007323
450 P. Braun-Munzinger and J. Stachel (Non)thermal aspects of charmonium production and a new look at $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ suppression PLB 490 (2000) 196 nucl-th/0007059
451 P. Faccioli and C. Lourenço The fate of quarkonia in heavy-ion collisions at LHC energies: a unified description of the sequential suppression patterns EPJC 78 (2018) 731 1809.10488
452 CMS Collaboration Observation of the $ \Upsilon{\textrm{(3S)}} $ meson and suppression of $ \Upsilon $ states in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV Submitted to PRL, 2023 CMS-HIN-21-007
2303.17026
453 CMS Collaboration Relative modification of prompt $ \psi(2\mathrm{S}) $ and $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ yields from pp to PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PRL 118 (2017) 162301 CMS-HIN-16-004
1611.01438
454 CMS Collaboration Measurement of nuclear modification factors of $ \Upsilon $(1S), $ \Upsilon $(2S), and $ \Upsilon $(3S) mesons in PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PLB 790 (2019) 270 CMS-HIN-16-023
1805.09215
455 CMS Collaboration Fragmentation of jets containing a prompt $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ meson in PbPb and pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PLB 825 (2022) 136842 CMS-HIN-19-007
2106.13235
456 J. Brewer, J. G. Milhano, and J. Thaler Sorting out quenched jets PRL 122 (2019) 222301 1812.05111
457 Y.-L. Du, D. Pablos, and K. Tywoniuk Deep learning jet modifications in heavy-ion collisions JHEP 21 (2020) 206 2012.07797
458 J. Brewer, Q. Brodsky, and K. Rajagopal Disentangling jet modification in jet simulations and in Z+jet data JHEP 02 (2022) 175 2110.13159
459 D. d'Enterria et al. Estimates of hadron azimuthal anisotropy from multiparton interactions in proton-proton collisions at $ \sqrt{s}= $ 14 TeV EPJC 66 (2010) 173 0910.3029
460 L. Cunqueiro, J. Dias de Deus, and C. Pajares Nuclear like effects in proton-proton collisions at high energy EPJC 65 (2010) 423 0806.0523
461 K. Werner, F.-M. Liu, and T. Pierog Parton ladder splitting and the rapidity dependence of transverse momentum spectra in deuteron-gold collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider PRC 74 (2006) 044902 hep-ph/0506232
462 M. Gyulassy and X.-N. Wang HIJING 1.0: A Monte Carlo program for parton and particle production in high energy hadronic and nuclear collisions Comput. Phys. Commun. 83 (1994) 307 nucl-th/9502021
463 R. Xu, W.-T. Deng, and X.-N. Wang Nuclear modification of high-$ p_{\mathrm{T}} $ hadron spectra in high-energy $ \mathrm{p}{+}\mathrm{A} $ collisions PRC 86 (2012) 051901 1204.1998
464 S. Roesler, R. Engel, and J. Ranft The Monte Carlo event generator DPMJET-III in Proc. Advanced Monte Carlo for radiation physics, particle transport simulation and applications MC2000, Lisbon, Portugal (2000)
link
hep-ph/0012252
465 A. Dumitru, D. E. Kharzeev, E. M. Levin, and Y. Nara Gluon saturation in $ \mathrm{p}\mathrm{A} $ collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider: Predictions for hadron multiplicities PRC 85 (2012) 044920 1111.3031
466 ALICE Collaboration Pseudorapidity density of charged particles in pPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 5.02 TeV PRL 110 (2013) 032301 1210.3615
467 E178 Collaboration Experimental study of multiparticle production in hadron-nucleus interactions at high energy PRD 22 (1980) 13
468 NA35 Collaboration Charged particle production in proton, deuteron, oxygen and sulphur nucleus collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon EPJC 2 (1998) 643 hep-ex/9711001
469 PHOBOS Collaboration Pseudorapidity distribution of charged particles in $ \textrm{d} $+Au collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 200 GeV PRL 93 (2004) 082301 nucl-ex/0311009
470 PHENIX Collaboration Transverse energy production and charged-particle multiplicity at midrapidity in various systems from $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 7.7 to 200 GeV PRC 93 (2016) 024901 1509.06727
471 PHENIX Collaboration Measurements of azimuthal anisotropy and charged-particle multiplicity in $ \mathrm{d}+ $Au collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 200, 62.4, 39, and 19.6 GeV PRC 96 (2017) 064905 1708.06983
472 NA50 Collaboration Scaling of charged particle multiplicity in Pb-Pb collisions at SPS energies PLB 530 (2002) 43
473 STAR Collaboration Multiplicity distribution and spectra of negatively charged hadrons in Au+Au collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 130 GeV PRL 87 (2001) 112303 nucl-ex/0106004
474 BRAHMS Collaboration Charged particle densities from Au+Au collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 130 GeV PLB 523 (2001) 227 nucl-ex/0108016
475 BRAHMS Collaboration Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles from Au+Au collisions at the maximum RHIC energy, $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 200 GeV PRL 88 (2002) 202301 nucl-ex/0112001
476 PHENIX Collaboration Centrality dependence of charged particle multiplicity in Au-Au collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 130 GeV PRL 86 (2001) 3500 nucl-ex/0012008
477 PHOBOS Collaboration Charged-particle multiplicity near midrapidity in central Au+Au collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 56 and 130 GeV PRL 85 (2000) 3100 hep-ex/0007036
478 PHOBOS Collaboration Charged-particle pseudorapidity density distributions from Au+Au collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 130 GeV PRL 87 (2001) 102303 nucl-ex/0106006
479 PHOBOS Collaboration Significance of the fragmentation region in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions PRL 91 (2003) 052303 nucl-ex/0210015
480 ALICE Collaboration Charged-particle multiplicity density at midrapidity in central Pb-Pb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV PRL 105 (2010) 252301 1011.3916
481 ATLAS Collaboration Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged particle pseudorapidity distribution in lead-lead collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector PLB 710 (2012) 363 1108.6027
482 STAR Collaboration Identified particle production, azimuthal anisotropy, and interferometry measurements in Au+Au collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 9.2 GeV PRC 81 (2010) 024911 0909.4131
483 STAR Collaboration Systematic measurements of identified particle spectra in pp, d+Au, and Au+Au collisions at the STAR detector PRC 79 (2009) 034909 0808.2041
484 UA5 Collaboration Particle multiplicities in pp interactions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}} = $ 540 GeV PLB 121 (1983) 209
485 CDF Collaboration Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles produced in $ \overline{\mathrm{p}}\mathrm{p} $ interactions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}} = $ 630 and 1800 GeV PRD 41 (1990) 2330
486 Aachen-CERN-Heidelberg-Munich Collaboration Charged particle multiplicity distributions in pp collisions at ISR energies NPB 129 (1977) 365
487 CMS Collaboration Pseudorapidity distribution of charged hadrons in proton-proton collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}} = $ 13 TeV PLB 751 (2015) 143 CMS-FSQ-15-001
1507.05915
488 CMS Collaboration Study of the inclusive production of charged pions, kaons, and protons in pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}}= $ 0.9, 2.76, and 7 TeV EPJC 72 (2012) 2164 CMS-FSQ-12-014
1207.4724
489 ALICE Collaboration Centrality dependence of $ \pi $, K, p production in Pb-Pb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV PRC 88 (2013) 044910 1303.0737
490 CMS Collaboration Centrality and pseudorapidity dependence of the transverse energy density in pPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PRC 100 (2019) 024902 CMS-HIN-14-014
1810.05745
491 CMS Collaboration Multiplicity and rapidity dependence of strange hadron production in pp, pPb, and PbPb collisions at the LHC PLB 768 (2017) 103 CMS-HIN-15-006
1605.06699
492 S. A. Voloshin, A. M. Poskanzer, and R. Snellings Collective phenomena in non-central nuclear collisions Landolt-, 2010
Bornstein 23 (2010) 293
0809.2949
493 STAR Collaboration Centrality dependence of charged hadron and strange hadron elliptic flow from $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 200 GeV $ \mathrm{Au}{+}\mathrm{Au} $ collisions PRC 77 (2008) 054901 0801.3466
494 L. Yan and J.-Y. Ollitrault Universal fluctuation-driven eccentricities in proton-proton, proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions PRL 112 (2014) 082301 1312.6555
495 CMS Collaboration Multiparticle correlation studies in pPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV PRC 101 (2020) 014912 CMS-HIN-17-004
1904.11519
496 CMS Collaboration Correlations of azimuthal anisotropy Fourier harmonics with subevent cumulants in pPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 8.16 TeV PRC 103 (2021) 014902 CMS-HIN-18-015
1905.09935
497 J. Jia, M. Zhou, and A. Trzupek Revealing long-range multiparticle collectivity in small collision systems via subevent cumulants PRC 96 (2017) 034906 1701.03830
498 ATLAS Collaboration Measurement of the correlation between flow harmonics of different order in lead-lead collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector PRC 92 (2015) 034903 1504.01289
499 ALICE Collaboration Correlated event-by-event fluctuations of flow harmonics in Pb-Pb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 2.76 TeV PRL 117 (2016) 182301 1604.07663
500 Z. Xu and C. Greiner Shear viscosity in a gluon gas PRL 100 (2008) 172301 0710.5719
501 A. Bzdak and G.-L. Ma Elliptic and triangular flow in $ \mathrm{p} $+Pb and peripheral Pb+Pb collisions from parton scatterings PRL 113 (2014) 252301 1406.2804
502 A. Dumitru et al. The ridge in proton-proton collisions at the LHC PLB 697 (2011) 21 1009.5295
503 K. Dusling and R. Venugopalan Azimuthal collimation of long range rapidity correlations by strong color fields in high multiplicity hadron-hadron collisions PRL 108 (2012) 262001 1201.2658
504 G. Giacalone, B. Schenke, and C. Shen Observable signatures of initial state momentum anisotropies in nuclear collisions PRL 125 (2020) 192301 2006.15721
505 A. Baty, P. Gardner, and W. Li Novel observables for exploring QCD collective evolution and quantum entanglement within individual jets PRC 107 (2023) 064908 2104.11735
506 STAR Collaboration Measurement of $ \mathrm{D^0} $ azimuthal anisotropy at midrapidity in $ \mathrm{Au}{+}\mathrm{Au} $ collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 200 GeV PRL 118 (2017) 212301 1701.06060
507 ALICE Collaboration Azimuthal anisotropy of $ \mathrm{D} $ meson production in Pb-Pb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 2.76 TeV PRC 90 (2014) 034904 1405.2001
508 ALICE Collaboration $ \mathrm{D} $-meson azimuthal anisotropy in midcentral Pb-Pb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}}= $ 5.02 TeV PRL 120 (2018) 102301 1707.01005
509 CMS Collaboration Elliptic flow of charm and strange hadrons in high-multiplicity pPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV PRL 121 (2018) 082301 CMS-HIN-17-003
1804.09767
510 CMS Collaboration Observation of prompt $ \mathrm{J}/\psi $ meson elliptic flow in high-multiplicity pPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV PLB 791 (2019) 172 CMS-HIN-18-010
1810.01473
511 CMS Collaboration Studies of charm and beauty hadron long-range correlations in pp and pPb collisions at LHC energies PLB 813 (2021) 136036 CMS-HIN-19-009
2009.07065
512 X. Du and R. Rapp In-medium charmonium production in proton-nucleus collisions JHEP 03 (2019) 015 1808.10014
513 D. Molnar and S. A. Voloshin Elliptic flow at large transverse momenta from quark coalescence PRL 91 (2003) 092301 nucl-th/0302014
514 R. J. Fries, B. Muller, C. Nonaka, and S. A. Bass Hadronization in heavy ion collisions: recombination and fragmentation of partons PRL 90 (2003) 202303 nucl-th/0301087
515 STAR Collaboration Particle type dependence of azimuthal anisotropy and nuclear modification of particle production in $ \mathrm{Au}{+}\mathrm{Au} $ collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 200 GeV PRL 92 (2004) 052302 nucl-ex/0306007
516 STAR Collaboration Mass, quark-number, and $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} $ dependence of the second and fourth flow harmonics in ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions PRC 75 (2007) 054906 nucl-ex/0701010
517 PHENIX Collaboration Scaling properties of azimuthal anisotropy in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 200 GeV PRL 98 (2007) 162301 nucl-ex/0608033
518 C. Zhang et al. Elliptic flow of heavy quarkonia in $ \mathrm{p}\mathrm{A} $ collisions PRL 122 (2019) 172302 1901.10320
519 C. Zhang et al. Collectivity of heavy mesons in proton-nucleus collisions PRD 102 (2020) 034010 2002.09878
520 X. Dong, Y.-J. Lee, and R. Rapp Open heavy-flavor production in heavy-ion collisions Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 69 (2019) 417 1903.07709
521 A. Badea et al. Measurements of two-particle correlations in $ \mathrm{e}^+\mathrm{e}^- $ collisions at 91 GeV with ALEPH archived data PRL 123 (2019) 212002 1906.00489
522 Y.-C. Chen et al. Long-range near-side correlation in $ \mathrm{e}^+\mathrm{e}^- $ collisions at 183-209 GeV with ALEPH archived data Submitted to PRL, 2023 2312.05084
523 Belle Collaboration Measurement of two-particle correlations of hadrons in $ \mathrm{e}^+\mathrm{e}^- $ collisions at Belle PRL 128 (2022) 142005 2201.01694
524 Belle Collaboration Two-particle angular correlations in $ \mathrm{e}^+\mathrm{e}^- $ collisions to hadronic final states in two reference coordinates at Belle JHEP 03 (2023) 171 2206.09440
525 ZEUS Collaboration Two-particle azimuthal correlations as a probe of collective behaviour in deep inelastic $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{p} $ scattering at HERA JHEP 04 (2020) 070 1912.07431
526 ZEUS Collaboration Azimuthal correlations in photoproduction and deep inelastic $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{p} $ scattering at HERA JHEP 12 (2021) 102 2106.12377
527 CMS Collaboration Measurement of prompt and nonprompt $ \mathrm{J}/{\psi } $ production in $ \mathrm {p}\mathrm {p} $ and $ \mathrm {p}\mathrm {Pb} $ collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV EPJC 77 (2017) 269 CMS-HIN-14-009
1702.01462
528 CMS Collaboration Nuclear modification of $ \Upsilon $ states in pPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PLB 835 (2022) 137397 CMS-HIN-18-005
2202.11807
529 CMS Collaboration Investigation into the event-activity dependence of $ \Upsilon $(nS) relative production in proton-proton collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}} = $ 7 TeV JHEP 11 (2020) 001 CMS-BPH-14-009
2007.04277
530 A. Huss et al. Predicting parton energy loss in small collision systems PRC 103 (2021) 054903 2007.13758
531 CMS Collaboration Measurement of inclusive jet production and nuclear modifications in pPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV EPJC 76 (2016) 372 CMS-HIN-14-001
1601.02001
532 CMS Collaboration Measurements of the charm jet cross section and nuclear modification factor in pPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PLB 772 (2017) 306 CMS-HIN-15-012
1612.08972
533 G. Baur et al. Hot topics in ultraperipheral ion collisions in Workshop on Electromagnetic Probes of Fundamental Physics, 2002
link
hep-ex/0201034
534 R. Engel, M. A. Braun, C. Pajares, and J. Ranft Diffraction dissociation, an important background to photon-photon collisions via heavy ion beams at LHC Z. Phys. C 74 (1997) 687 hep-ph/9605227
535 CMS Collaboration Evidence for light-by-light scattering and searches for axion-like particles in ultraperipheral PbPb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PLB 797 (2019) 134826 CMS-FSQ-16-012
1810.04602
536 CMS Collaboration Observation of $ \tau $ lepton pair production in ultraperipheral lead-lead collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV PRL 131 (2023) 151803 CMS-HIN-21-009
2206.05192
537 C. N. Azevedo, V. P. Goncalves, and B. D. Moreira Double particle production in ultraperipheral PbPb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider and Future Circular Collider Eur. Phys. J. A 59 (2023) 193 2306.05519
538 D. d'Enterria and A. Snigirev Double, triple, and $ n $-parton scatterings in high-energy proton and nuclear collisions Adv. Ser. Direct. High Energy Phys. 29 (2018) 159 1708.07519
539 A. Esposito, C. A. Manzari, A. Pilloni, and A. D. Polosa Hunting for tetraquarks in ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions PRD 104 (2021) 114029 2109.10359
540 R. Fariello, D. Bhandari, C. A. Bertulani, and F. S. Navarra Two- and three-photon fusion into charmonium in ultraperipheral nuclear collisions PRC 108 (2023) 044901 2306.10642
541 ATLAS Collaboration Observation of centrality-dependent acoplanarity for muon pairs produced via two-photon scattering in Pb+Pb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV with the ATLAS detector PRL 121 (2018) 212301 1806.08708
542 C. G. Roldao and A. A. Natale Photon-photon and pomeron-pomeron processes in peripheral heavy ion collisions PRC 61 (2000) 064907 nucl-th/0003038
543 J. Thomas et al. Parton distribution functions probed in ultraperipheral collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider 1603.01919
544 X. Cid Vidal et al. Report from Working Group 3: Beyond the Standard Model physics at the HL-LHC and HE-LHC CERN Yellow Rep. Monogr. 7 (2019) 585 1812.07831
545 R. Bruce et al. New physics searches with heavy ion collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider JPG 47 (2020) 060501 1812.07688
546 D. d'Enterria et al. Opportunities for new physics searches with heavy ions at colliders JPG 50 (2023) 050501 2203.05939
547 S. Fichet et al. Probing new physics in diphoton production with proton tagging at the Large Hadron Collider PRD 89 (2014) 114004 1312.5153
548 M. Begel et al. Precision QCD, hadronic structure and forward QCD, heavy ions: Report of energy frontier topical groups 5, 6, 7 submitted to Snowmass 2021 2209.14872
549 H.-S. Shao and D. d'Enterria Gamma-UPC: automated generation of exclusive photon-photon processes in ultraperipheral proton and nuclear collisions with varying form factors JHEP 09 (2022) 248 2207.03012
550 R. Bruce et al. First observations of beam losses due to bound-free pair production in a heavy ion collider PRL 99 (2007) 144801 0706.2292
551 A. J. Baltz, Y. Gorbunov, S. R. Klein, and J. Nystrand Two-photon interactions with nuclear breakup in relativistic heavy ion collisions PRC 80 (2009) 044902 0907.1214
552 STAR Collaboration Low-$ p_{\mathrm{T}}$ $ \mathrm{e}^+\mathrm{e}^- $ pair production in Au$ + $Au collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 200 GeV and U$ + $U collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 193 GeV at STAR PRL 121 (2018) 132301 1806.02295
553 W. Zha, J. D. Brandenburg, Z. Tang, and Z. Xu Initial transverse-momentum broadening of Breit-Wheeler process in relativistic heavy-ion collisions PLB 800 (2020) 135089 1812.02820
554 C. Li, J. Zhou, and Y.-J. Zhou Impact parameter dependence of the azimuthal asymmetry in lepton pair production in heavy ion collisions PRD 101 (2020) 034015 1911.00237
555 R.-j. Wang, S. Pu, and Q. Wang Lepton pair production in ultraperipheral collisions PRD 104 (2021) 056011 2106.05462
556 G. Baur, K. Hencken, and D. Trautmann Electron-positron pair production in relativistic heavy ion collisions Phys. Rep. 453 (2007) 1 0706.0654
557 ATLAS Collaboration Exclusive dimuon production in ultraperipheral Pb+Pb collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s_{_{\mathrm{NN}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV with ATLAS PRC 104 (2021) 024906 2011.12211
558 J. D. Brandenburg et al. Acoplanarity of QED pairs accompanied by nuclear dissociation in ultra-peripheral heavy ion collisions 2006.07365
559 D. d'Enterria and G. G. da Silveira Observing light-by-light scattering at the Large Hadron Collider PRL 111 (2013) 080405 1305.7142
560 CMS Collaboration Exclusive photon-photon production of muon pairs in proton-proton collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}} = $ 7 TeV JHEP 01 (2012) 052 CMS-FWD-10-005
1111.5536
561 CMS Collaboration Search for exclusive or semi-exclusive photon pair production and observation of exclusive and semi-exclusive electron pair production in pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}} = $ 7 TeV JHEP 11 (2012) 080 CMS-FWD-11-004
1209.1666
562 L. A. Harland-Lang Exciting ions: A systematic treatment of ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions with nuclear breakup PRD 107 (2023) 093004 2303.04826
563 M. KŁusek-Gawenda, P. Lebiedowicz, and A. Szczurek Light-by-light scattering in ultraperipheral Pb-Pb collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider PRC 93 (2016) 044907 1601.07001
564 ATLAS Collaboration Evidence for light-by-light scattering in heavy-ion collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC Nature Phys. 13 (2017) 852 1702.01625
565 ATLAS Collaboration Measurement of light-by-light scattering and search for axion-like particles with 2.2$\,\text{nb}^{-1}$ of Pb+Pb data with the ATLAS detector JHEP 03 (2021) 243 2008.05355
566 G. K. Krintiras et al. Light-by-light scattering cross-section measurements at the LHC Acta Phys. Polon. Supp. 16 (2023) 123
567 F. del Aguila, F. Cornet, and J. I. Illana The possibility of using a large heavy ion collider for measuring the electromagnetic properties of the $ \tau $ lepton PLB 271 (1991) 256
568 L. Beresford and J. Liu New physics and $ \tau g- $ 2 using LHC heavy ion collisions PRD 102 (2020) 113008 1908.05180
569 M. Dyndal, M. Klusek-Gawenda, M. Schott, and A. Szczurek Anomalous electromagnetic moments of $ \tau $ lepton in $ \gamma\gamma\to\tau^{+}\tau^{-} $ reaction in PbPb collisions at the LHC PLB 809 (2020) 135682 2002.05503
570 N. Burmasov, E. Kryshen, P. Bühler, and R. Lavicka Feasibility studies of $ \tau $ lepton anomalous magnetic moment measurements in ultraperipheral collisions at the LHC Phys. Part. Nucl. 54 (2023) 590
571 ATLAS Collaboration Observation of the $ \gamma\gamma\to\tau\tau $ process in Pb+Pb collisions and constraints on the $ \tau $-lepton anomalous magnetic moment with the ATLAS detector PRL 131 (2023) 151802 2204.13478
572 DELPHI Collaboration Study of $ \tau $ pair production in photon-photon collisions at LEP and limits on the anomalous electromagnetic moments of the $ \tau $ lepton EPJC 35 (2004) 159 hep-ex/0406010
573 CMS Collaboration Snowmass white paper contribution: Physics with the Phase-2 ATLAS and CMS detectors CMS Physics Analysis Summary, 2022
CMS-PAS-FTR-22-001
574 S. Knapen, T. Lin, H. K. Lou, and T. Melia Searching for axion-like particles with ultraperipheral heavy ion collisions PRL 118 (2017) 171801 1607.06083
575 D. d'Enterria et al. Collider constraints on massive gravitons coupling to photons PLB 846 (2023) 138237 2306.15558
576 J. Ellis, N. E. Mavromatos, and T. You Light-by-light scattering constraint on Born-Infeld theory PRL 118 (2017) 261802 1703.08450
577 E. Chapon, C. Royon, and O. Kepka Anomalous quartic $ \mathrm{W}\mathrm{W}\gamma\gamma $, $ \mathrm{Z}\mathrm{Z}\gamma\gamma $, and trilinear $ \mathrm{W}\mathrm{W}\gamma $ couplings in two-photon processes at high luminosity at the LHC PRD 81 (2010) 074003 0912.5161
578 A. L. Read Presentation of search results: The CL$ _{\text{s}} $ technique JPG 28 (2002) 2693
579 T. Junk Confidence level computation for combining searches with small statistics NIM A 434 (1999) 435 hep-ex/9902006
580 J. Jaeckel and M. Spannowsky Probing MeV to 90 GeV axion-like particles with LEP and LHC PLB 753 (2016) 482 1509.00476
581 B. Döbrich et al. ALPtraum: ALP production in proton beam dump experiments JHEP 02 (2016) 018 1512.03069
582 OPAL Collaboration Multiphoton production in $ \mathrm{e}^-\mathrm{e}^+ $ collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}}= $ 181 to 209 GeV EPJC 26 (2003) 331 hep-ex/0210016
583 ATLAS Collaboration Search for scalar diphoton resonances in the mass range 65-600 GeV with the ATLAS detector in pp collision data at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}} = $ 8 TeV PRL 113 (2014) 171801 1407.6583
584 ATLAS Collaboration Search for new phenomena in events with at least three photons collected in pp collisions at $ \sqrt{\smash[b]{s}} = $ 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector EPJC 76 (2016) 210 1509.05051
585 H. A. Andrews et al. Novel tools and observables for jet physics in heavy ion collisions JPG 47 (2020) 065102 1808.03689
586 C. Andres et al. Resolving the scales of the quark-gluon plasma with energy correlators PRL 130 (2023) 262301 2209.11236
587 J. Brewer, A. Mazeliauskas, and W. van der Schee Opportunities of OO and pO collisions at the LHC 2103.01939
588 J. Albrecht et al. The muon puzzle in cosmic-ray induced air showers and its connection to the Large Hadron Collider Astrophys. Space Sci. 367 (2022) 27 2105.06148
589 CMS Collaboration The Phase-2 upgrade of the CMS tracker technical report, 2017
link
590 R. Longo (for the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations) Joint ATLAS/CMS ZDC upgrade project for the high-luminosity LHC EPJ Web Conf. 276 (2023) 05003
591 CMS Collaboration A MIP timing detector for the CMS Phase-2 upgrade technical report, CERN, 2019
CDS
592 CMS Collaboration New opportunities of heavy ion physics with CMS-MTD at the HL-LHC technical report, 2021
CDS
593 CMS Collaboration Performance of physics objects with low transverse momentum using ultraperipheral pbpb collisions at 5.36 tev in 2023 CMS Detector Performance Summary CMS-DP-2024/011, 2024
link
594 V. Biloshytskyi et al. Two-photon decay of X(6900) from light-by-light scattering at the LHC PRD 106 (2022) L111902 2207.13623
595 Z. Citron et al. Report from Working Group 5: Future physics opportunities for high-density QCD at the LHC with heavy-ion and proton beams CERN Yellow Rep. Monogr. 7 (2019) 1159 1812.06772
596 P. Achenbach et al. The present and future of QCD 2303.02579
597 Program Advisory Committee (Brookhaven National Laboratory) Recommendations of the nuclear and particle physics program 2023
link
598 A. Accardi et al. Electron Ion Collider: The next QCD frontier: Understanding the glue that binds us all Eur. Phys. J. A 52 (2016) 268 1212.1701
Compact Muon Solenoid
LHC, CERN