CMS-EXO-19-017 ; CERN-EP-2021-142 | ||
Search for new physics in the lepton plus missing transverse momentum final state in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV | ||
CMS Collaboration | ||
12 February 2022 | ||
JHEP 07 (2022) 067 | ||
Abstract: A search for physics beyond the standard model (SM) in final states with an electron or muon and missing transverse momentum is presented. The analysis uses data from proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC in 2016-2018 and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb$^{-1}$. No significant deviation from the SM prediction is observed. Model-independent limits are set on the production cross section of W' bosons decaying into lepton-plus-neutrino final states. Within the framework of the sequential standard model, with the combined results from the electron and muon decay channels a W' boson with mass less than 5.7 TeV is excluded at 95% confidence level. Results on a SM precision test, the determination of the oblique electroweak $W$ parameter, are presented using LHC data for the first time. These results together with those from the direct W' resonance search are used to extend existing constraints on composite Higgs scenarios. This is the first experimental exclusion on compositeness parameters using results from LHC data other than Higgs boson measurements. | ||
Links: e-print arXiv:2202.06075 [hep-ex] (PDF) ; CDS record ; inSPIRE record ; HepData record ; CADI line (restricted) ; |
Figures | |
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Figure 1:
Feynman diagram for the production and decay of a new heavy boson, an SSM W' or a Kaluza-Klein excitation mode of W ($\mathrm{W} _{\mathrm {KK}}$) (left). The coupling strength, $g_{\mathrm{W'}}$, is allowed to vary. In RPV SUSY, a $\tau$ slepton ($\tilde{\tau}$) could also act as a mediator (right) with the corresponding coupling strength, ${\lambda}$, for the decay. This coupling strength is allowed to be different between the two final states, denoted by $ {\lambda} _{231}$ and $ {\lambda} _{132}$ for the electron and muon final states, respectively. Here, C.C. stands for charge conjugation. |
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Figure 2:
Product of acceptance and efficiency for the SSM W' signal, as a function of the W' mass, after all selection criteria are applied for the electron (filled purple markers) and the muon (open blue markers) channels. |
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Figure 3:
The distributions for lepton ${p_{\mathrm {T}}}$ (left) and ${{p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^\text {miss}}$ (right) for the electron (upper) and muon (lower) channels after applying the full selection criteria, for the combined 2016-2018 data sets. Two signal distributions are presented, corresponding to SSM W' boson masses of 3.8 and 5.6 TeV. The lower panels show the ratios of data to the SM prediction, and the shaded bands represents the systematic uncertainty. |
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Figure 3-a:
The distributions for lepton ${p_{\mathrm {T}}}$ (left) and ${{p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^\text {miss}}$ (right) for the electron (upper) and muon (lower) channels after applying the full selection criteria, for the combined 2016-2018 data sets. Two signal distributions are presented, corresponding to SSM W' boson masses of 3.8 and 5.6 TeV. The lower panels show the ratios of data to the SM prediction, and the shaded bands represents the systematic uncertainty. |
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Figure 3-b:
The distributions for lepton ${p_{\mathrm {T}}}$ (left) and ${{p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^\text {miss}}$ (right) for the electron (upper) and muon (lower) channels after applying the full selection criteria, for the combined 2016-2018 data sets. Two signal distributions are presented, corresponding to SSM W' boson masses of 3.8 and 5.6 TeV. The lower panels show the ratios of data to the SM prediction, and the shaded bands represents the systematic uncertainty. |
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Figure 3-c:
The distributions for lepton ${p_{\mathrm {T}}}$ (left) and ${{p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^\text {miss}}$ (right) for the electron (upper) and muon (lower) channels after applying the full selection criteria, for the combined 2016-2018 data sets. Two signal distributions are presented, corresponding to SSM W' boson masses of 3.8 and 5.6 TeV. The lower panels show the ratios of data to the SM prediction, and the shaded bands represents the systematic uncertainty. |
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Figure 3-d:
The distributions for lepton ${p_{\mathrm {T}}}$ (left) and ${{p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^\text {miss}}$ (right) for the electron (upper) and muon (lower) channels after applying the full selection criteria, for the combined 2016-2018 data sets. Two signal distributions are presented, corresponding to SSM W' boson masses of 3.8 and 5.6 TeV. The lower panels show the ratios of data to the SM prediction, and the shaded bands represents the systematic uncertainty. |
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Figure 4:
The distributions for ${M_\mathrm {T}}$ for the electron (left) and muon (right) channels after applying the full selection criteria, for the combined 2016-2018 data sets. Two signal distributions are presented, corresponding to SSM W' boson masses of 3.8 and 5.6 TeV. The lower panels show the ratios of data to the SM prediction, and the shaded bands represents the systematic uncertainty. |
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Figure 4-a:
The distributions for ${M_\mathrm {T}}$ for the electron (left) and muon (right) channels after applying the full selection criteria, for the combined 2016-2018 data sets. Two signal distributions are presented, corresponding to SSM W' boson masses of 3.8 and 5.6 TeV. The lower panels show the ratios of data to the SM prediction, and the shaded bands represents the systematic uncertainty. |
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Figure 4-b:
The distributions for ${M_\mathrm {T}}$ for the electron (left) and muon (right) channels after applying the full selection criteria, for the combined 2016-2018 data sets. Two signal distributions are presented, corresponding to SSM W' boson masses of 3.8 and 5.6 TeV. The lower panels show the ratios of data to the SM prediction, and the shaded bands represents the systematic uncertainty. |
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Figure 5:
The observed (solid line) and expected (dashed line) upper limits at 95% CL on $\sigma _{\mathrm{W'}}\mathcal {B}(\mathrm{W'} \to \ell \nu)$ for an SSM W' boson model, as a function of the W' boson mass, for the electron (upper left), muon (upper right) channels, and the combination of both channels (lower). The shaded bands represent the one and two standard deviation uncertainty bands for the expected limits. The theoretical predictions for the SSM at QCD NNLO precision are shown, with the narrow grey bands indicating the uncertainty associated with the choice of PDFs and ${\alpha _\mathrm {S}}$. |
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Figure 5-a:
The observed (solid line) and expected (dashed line) upper limits at 95% CL on $\sigma _{\mathrm{W'}}\mathcal {B}(\mathrm{W'} \to \ell \nu)$ for an SSM W' boson model, as a function of the W' boson mass, for the electron (upper left), muon (upper right) channels, and the combination of both channels (lower). The shaded bands represent the one and two standard deviation uncertainty bands for the expected limits. The theoretical predictions for the SSM at QCD NNLO precision are shown, with the narrow grey bands indicating the uncertainty associated with the choice of PDFs and ${\alpha _\mathrm {S}}$. |
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Figure 5-b:
The observed (solid line) and expected (dashed line) upper limits at 95% CL on $\sigma _{\mathrm{W'}}\mathcal {B}(\mathrm{W'} \to \ell \nu)$ for an SSM W' boson model, as a function of the W' boson mass, for the electron (upper left), muon (upper right) channels, and the combination of both channels (lower). The shaded bands represent the one and two standard deviation uncertainty bands for the expected limits. The theoretical predictions for the SSM at QCD NNLO precision are shown, with the narrow grey bands indicating the uncertainty associated with the choice of PDFs and ${\alpha _\mathrm {S}}$. |
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Figure 5-c:
The observed (solid line) and expected (dashed line) upper limits at 95% CL on $\sigma _{\mathrm{W'}}\mathcal {B}(\mathrm{W'} \to \ell \nu)$ for an SSM W' boson model, as a function of the W' boson mass, for the electron (upper left), muon (upper right) channels, and the combination of both channels (lower). The shaded bands represent the one and two standard deviation uncertainty bands for the expected limits. The theoretical predictions for the SSM at QCD NNLO precision are shown, with the narrow grey bands indicating the uncertainty associated with the choice of PDFs and ${\alpha _\mathrm {S}}$. |
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Figure 6:
The 95% CL observed (solid line) and expected (dashed line) model-independent cross section limits as functions of the $ {M_\mathrm {T}^\mathrm {min}} $ threshold. These are shown for the electron (upper left) and muon (upper right) channels and their combination (lower). The one and two standard deviation uncertainty bands for the expected limits are shown. |
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Figure 6-a:
The 95% CL observed (solid line) and expected (dashed line) model-independent cross section limits as functions of the $ {M_\mathrm {T}^\mathrm {min}} $ threshold. These are shown for the electron (upper left) and muon (upper right) channels and their combination (lower). The one and two standard deviation uncertainty bands for the expected limits are shown. |
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Figure 6-b:
The 95% CL observed (solid line) and expected (dashed line) model-independent cross section limits as functions of the $ {M_\mathrm {T}^\mathrm {min}} $ threshold. These are shown for the electron (upper left) and muon (upper right) channels and their combination (lower). The one and two standard deviation uncertainty bands for the expected limits are shown. |
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Figure 6-c:
The 95% CL observed (solid line) and expected (dashed line) model-independent cross section limits as functions of the $ {M_\mathrm {T}^\mathrm {min}} $ threshold. These are shown for the electron (upper left) and muon (upper right) channels and their combination (lower). The one and two standard deviation uncertainty bands for the expected limits are shown. |
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Figure 7:
The observed (solid line) and expected (dashed line) upper limits at 95% CL on the coupling strength ratio, $g_{\mathrm{W'}}/g_{\mathrm{W}}$ as functions of the mass of the W' boson. These are shown for the electron (left) and muon (right) channels. The one and two standard deviation uncertainty bands for the expected limits are shown. The area above the limit curve is excluded. The dotted line represents the case of SSM couplings, $g_{\mathrm{W'}}$, being equal to $g_{\mathrm{W}}$, the SM coupling. |
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Figure 7-a:
The observed (solid line) and expected (dashed line) upper limits at 95% CL on the coupling strength ratio, $g_{\mathrm{W'}}/g_{\mathrm{W}}$ as functions of the mass of the W' boson. These are shown for the electron (left) and muon (right) channels. The one and two standard deviation uncertainty bands for the expected limits are shown. The area above the limit curve is excluded. The dotted line represents the case of SSM couplings, $g_{\mathrm{W'}}$, being equal to $g_{\mathrm{W}}$, the SM coupling. |
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Figure 7-b:
The observed (solid line) and expected (dashed line) upper limits at 95% CL on the coupling strength ratio, $g_{\mathrm{W'}}/g_{\mathrm{W}}$ as functions of the mass of the W' boson. These are shown for the electron (left) and muon (right) channels. The one and two standard deviation uncertainty bands for the expected limits are shown. The area above the limit curve is excluded. The dotted line represents the case of SSM couplings, $g_{\mathrm{W'}}$, being equal to $g_{\mathrm{W}}$, the SM coupling. |
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Figure 8:
Exclusion limits in the 2D plane (1/$R$,$\mu $) for the split-UED interpretation for the $n = $ 2 case. These are shown for the electron (upper left), muon (upper right), and the combination of both (lower) channels for the 2016-2018 data sets. The expected limit is depicted as a black dashed line. The one and two standard deviation uncertainty bands for the expected limits are shown. The experimentally excluded region is the entire area to the left of the solid black line. |
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Figure 8-a:
Exclusion limits in the 2D plane (1/$R$,$\mu $) for the split-UED interpretation for the $n = $ 2 case. These are shown for the electron (upper left), muon (upper right), and the combination of both (lower) channels for the 2016-2018 data sets. The expected limit is depicted as a black dashed line. The one and two standard deviation uncertainty bands for the expected limits are shown. The experimentally excluded region is the entire area to the left of the solid black line. |
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Figure 8-b:
Exclusion limits in the 2D plane (1/$R$,$\mu $) for the split-UED interpretation for the $n = $ 2 case. These are shown for the electron (upper left), muon (upper right), and the combination of both (lower) channels for the 2016-2018 data sets. The expected limit is depicted as a black dashed line. The one and two standard deviation uncertainty bands for the expected limits are shown. The experimentally excluded region is the entire area to the left of the solid black line. |
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Figure 8-c:
Exclusion limits in the 2D plane (1/$R$,$\mu $) for the split-UED interpretation for the $n = $ 2 case. These are shown for the electron (upper left), muon (upper right), and the combination of both (lower) channels for the 2016-2018 data sets. The expected limit is depicted as a black dashed line. The one and two standard deviation uncertainty bands for the expected limits are shown. The experimentally excluded region is the entire area to the left of the solid black line. |
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Figure 9:
The observed (solid line) and expected (dashed line) upper limits at 95% CL on the couplings $ {\lambda} _{231}$ (left) and $ {\lambda} _{132}$ (right), for several values of $ {\lambda '} _{3ij}$ ($i, j$ = 1, 2, 3), as a function of the mass of the mediator $\tilde{\tau}$ in the RPV SUSY model. The one and two standard deviation uncertainty bands for the expected limits are shown. The areas above the limit curves are excluded. |
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Figure 9-a:
The observed (solid line) and expected (dashed line) upper limits at 95% CL on the couplings $ {\lambda} _{231}$ (left) and $ {\lambda} _{132}$ (right), for several values of $ {\lambda '} _{3ij}$ ($i, j$ = 1, 2, 3), as a function of the mass of the mediator $\tilde{\tau}$ in the RPV SUSY model. The one and two standard deviation uncertainty bands for the expected limits are shown. The areas above the limit curves are excluded. |
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Figure 9-b:
The observed (solid line) and expected (dashed line) upper limits at 95% CL on the couplings $ {\lambda} _{231}$ (left) and $ {\lambda} _{132}$ (right), for several values of $ {\lambda '} _{3ij}$ ($i, j$ = 1, 2, 3), as a function of the mass of the mediator $\tilde{\tau}$ in the RPV SUSY model. The one and two standard deviation uncertainty bands for the expected limits are shown. The areas above the limit curves are excluded. |
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Figure 10:
Region in the oblique $(W, Y)$ parameter phase space allowed by the current analysis at 95% CL, obtained by combining electron and muon channel distributions. Comparison of the result from the current analysis with the area derived from LEP experiments (grey-shaded area) is presented. |
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Figure 11:
Regions in the $m_{*}$-$g_{*}$ plane excluded at 95% CL by the results derived in the framework of the different models considered in the current analysis. Constraints from the limit on the oblique $W$ parameter are shown in red. Constraints from the limit on the W' boson coupling strength are shown in light blue for the SSM W' hypothesis (only coupling to fermions), and in dark blue for the HVT W' hypothesis (coupling to bosons as well). In addition, the exclusion coming from current CMS constraints on the Higgs boson cross section is shown as a orange shaded area. |
Tables | |
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Table 1:
The observed and expected number of events in the electron (upper) and muon (lower) channels, collected during three years (2016-2018), for selected values of ${M_\mathrm {T}}$ threshold. Predicted numbers of SSM W' events are given, for $M_{\mathrm{W'}}= $ 3.8 and 5.6 TeV. The statistical and systematic uncertainties are added in quadrature to provide the total uncertainty. |
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Table 2:
Observed and expected lower limits at 95% CL on the SSM W' boson mass for the electron and muon channels and for the combination of the two. |
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Table 3:
Summary of all 95% CL exclusion limit results with various theoretical model interpretations in the electron and muon channels, and the combination of both channels. The results in EFT and the composite Higgs boson model are obtained using 2017-2018 data sets only. The final allowed ranges for the model parameters are in the last column, except for the oblique $W$ parameter, where a measurement is provided, and the Composite Higgs scenario, as explained in the text. |
Summary |
A search for a deviation relative to standard model (SM) expectations in events with a final state consisting of a lepton (electron or muon) and missing transverse momentum in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV has been performed. The analysis strategy is similar to that of the previous study using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 fb$^{-1}$ [19]. This search uses data collected by the CMS detector in 2016-2018 corresponding to 138 fb$^{-1}$ of total integrated luminosity. In addition to employing four times larger data set, this search considers two new interpretations. No evidence for new physics is observed when examining the transverse mass distributions. These observations are interpreted as limits on the parameters of several models. The exclusion limits at 95% confidence level (CL) on the mass of a Sequential Standard Model (SSM) W' boson are found to be 5.4 and 5.6 TeV for the electron and muon channels, respectively. The 95% CL exclusion limit from the combination of both channels is 5.7 TeV. Variations in the coupling strength of the SSM W' boson are also examined. Models for which the ratio of the coupling strength of the W' boson to the SM W boson is at the level of 2$\times $10$^{-2}$ are excluded for W' masses up to 0.5 TeV. For higher masses the constraint on the coupling weakens, approaching $g_{\mathrm{W'}}/g_{\mathrm{W}} = $ 1 at the value of $M_{\mathrm{W'}}$ corresponding to the exclusion limit obtained in the SSM analysis. The result is also interpreted in the split universal extra dimensions model. The inverse radius of the extra dimension, 1/$R$, is constrained to be larger than 2.8 TeV if the bulk mass parameter of the five-dimensional fermion field, $\mu = $ 2 TeV. Model-independent limits are also provided. These can be used to constrain parameters of several models through reinterpretations. As an example, the limits have been interpreted in the context of an $R$-parity violating supersymmetric model. This interpretation provides limits on the coupling strengths at the decay vertex as a function of the mediator $\tilde{\tau}$ mass, for various coupling values, $\lambda'_{3ij}$, at the production vertex. In addition to these results, new interpretations of an ${\ell} \nu$ final state analysis using LHC data are considered for the first time. One is the measurement of the oblique $W$ parameter, using the combined electron and muon channels. The oblique $W$ parameter fitted value is $W = -$1.2$^{+0.5}_{-0.6}\times $10$^{-4}$, in agreement within uncertainties with the SM value. This is the most precise measurement to date of the oblique $W$ parameter, reducing its allowed range by more than an order of magnitude relative to previous bounds derived from LEP results. Another new interpretation is made within the framework of composite Higgs boson models. The 95% CL exclusion limit for the combined channels is set in the $m_{*}$-$g_{*}$ plane, where $m_{*}$ indicates the mass scale of compositeness and $g_{*}$ the coupling strength of the new composite sector. In this case, interpretations of several of the presented results have been used in a complementary way, as different inputs for setting the limit. Each of the inputs is sensitive to a different region in the $m_{*}$-$g_{*}$ plane. Constraints coming from the limit on the W' coupling strength dominate the low-$m_{*}$ region and are kinematically limited by the collider energy. The high-$m_{*}$ region is probed by the indirect oblique $W$ parameter interpretation. Finally, we set a lower limit of 3 (1) TeV for the mass scale of such a composite Higgs boson, when an SSM (Heavy Vector Triplet) W' boson is assumed, extending existing constraints from previous measurements. |
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