CMS-SMP-21-013 ; CERN-EP-2022-092 | ||
Observation of same-sign WW production from double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions at $ \sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV | ||
CMS Collaboration | ||
6 June 2022 | ||
Phys. Rev. Lett. 131 (2023) 091803 | ||
Abstract: The first observation of the production of W$^{\pm}$W$^{\pm} $ bosons from double parton scattering processes using same-sign electron-muon and dimuon events in proton-proton collisions is reported. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb$ ^{-1} $ recorded at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV using the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. Multivariate discriminants are used to distinguish the signal process from the main backgrounds. A binned maximum likelihood fit is performed to extract the signal cross section. The measured cross section for production of same-sign W bosons decaying leptonically is 80.7 $ \pm $ 11.2 (stat) $ ^{+9.5}_{-8.6} $ (syst) $ \pm $ 12.1 (model) fb, whereas the measured fiducial cross section is 6.28 $ \pm $ 0.81 (stat) $ \pm $ 0.69 (syst) $ \pm $ 0.37 (model) fb. The observed significance of the signal is 6.2 standard deviations above the background-only hypothesis. | ||
Links: e-print arXiv:2206.02681 [hep-ex] (PDF) ; CDS record ; inSPIRE record ; HepData record ; Physics Briefing ; CADI line (restricted) ; |
Figures | Summary | Additional Figures | References | CMS Publications |
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Figures | |
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Figure 1:
Example Feynman diagrams for leptonically decaying W$^{\pm}$W$^{\pm} $ bosons produced via DPS (upper) and SPS (middle and lower) processes. |
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Figure 1-a:
Example Feynman diagram for leptonically decaying W$^{\pm}$W$^{\pm} $ bosons produced via a DPS process. |
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Figure 1-b:
Example Feynman diagram for leptonically decaying W$^{\pm}$W$^{\pm} $ bosons produced via a SPS process. |
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Figure 1-c:
Example Feynman diagram for leptonically decaying W$^{\pm}$W$^{\pm} $ bosons produced via a SPS process. |
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Figure 2:
Postfit distribution of the final BDT discriminant output for the four lepton flavor and sign categories. The SPS W$^{\pm}$W$^{\pm} $, $ \rm \mathrm{t}\overline{\mathrm{t}}} $V, and VVV contributions are grouped as the ``Rare'' background. The total postfit uncertainty in the signal and background predictions is shown as the hatched band. The bottom panels show the ratio of data to the sum of all background contributions as the black data points along with the extracted signal shown by the red line. The vertical error bars on the data points represent the statistical uncertainty of the data. |
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Figure A1:
Distributions of the kinematic variables used for the training of the BDT discriminants for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states: $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\ell{1}} $, $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\ell{2}} $, $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^\text{miss} $, $ m_{\mathrm{T2}}(\ell\ell) $, $ m_{\mathrm{T}}\,(\ell\ell) $, $ m_{\mathrm{T}}\,(\ell{1},p_{\mathrm{T}}^\text{miss}) $, $ |\Delta\phi\,(\ell\ell)| $, $ |\Delta\phi\,(\ell{2},p_{\mathrm{T}}^\text{miss})| $, $ |\Delta\phi\,(\ell\ell,\ell{2})| $, $ \eta^{\ell{1}}*\eta^{\ell{2}} $, and, $ |\eta^{\ell{1}} + \eta^{\ell{2}}| $. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
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Figure A1-a:
Distribution of $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\ell{1}} $, for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
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Figure A1-b:
Distribution of $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\ell{2}} $, for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Figure A1-c:
Distribution of $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^\text{miss} $, for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Figure A1-d:
Distribution of $ m_{\mathrm{T2}}(\ell\ell) $, for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Figure A1-e:
Distribution of $ m_{\mathrm{T}}\,(\ell\ell) $, for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Figure A1-f:
Distribution of $ m_{\mathrm{T}}\,(\ell{1},p_{\mathrm{T}}^\text{miss}) $, for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Figure A1-g:
Distribution of $ |\Delta\phi\,(\ell\ell)| $, for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Figure A1-h:
Distribution of $ |\Delta\phi\,(\ell{2},p_{\mathrm{T}}^\text{miss})| $, for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Figure A1-i:
Distribution of $ |\Delta\phi\,(\ell\ell,\ell{2})| $, for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Figure A1-j:
Distribution of $ \eta^{\ell{1}}*\eta^{\ell{2}} $, for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Figure A1-k:
Distribution of $ |\eta^{\ell{1}} + \eta^{\ell{2}}| $, for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Figure A2:
Distributions of the two single BDT discriminants for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. The BDT discriminant trained against the WZ (nonprompt leptons) background is labeled as BDT$ _{\mathrm{W}\mathrm{Z}} $ (BDT$ _{\rm nonprompt} $). The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Figure A2-a:
Distribution of the BDT discriminant trained against the WZ background, labeled as BDT$ _{\mathrm{W}\mathrm{Z}}, for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Figure A2-b:
Distribution of the BDT discriminant trained against the nonprompt leptons background, labeled as BDT$ _{\rm nonprompt} $, for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
Summary |
In summary, the first observation of W$^{\pm}$W$^{\pm} $ production from double parton scattering processes in proton-proton collisions at $ \sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV has been reported. The analyzed data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb$ ^{-1} $, collected in 2016--2018 using the CMS detector at the LHC. Events are selected by requiring same-sign electron-muon or dimuon pairs with moderate missing transverse momentum and low jet multiplicity. Boosted decision trees are used to discriminate between the signal and the dominant background processes. A fiducial cross section of 6.28 $ \pm $ 0.81 (stat) $ \pm $ 0.69 (syst) $ \pm $ 0.37 (model) fb is extracted, and an inclusive cross section of 80.7 $ \pm $ 11.2 (stat) $ ^{+9.5}_{-8.6} $ (syst) $ \pm $ 12.1 (model) fb is measured. This corresponds to an observed significance of the signal above the background-only hypothesis of 6.2 standard deviations. A value of the DPS effective cross section, characterizing the transverse distribution of partons in the proton, $ \sigma_{\text{eff}}= $ 12.2 $ ^{+ 2.9}_{- 2.2} $ mb is extracted. |
Additional Figures | |
png pdf |
Additional Figure 1:
Distributions of the kinematic variables used for the training of the BDT discriminants for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states: $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\ell{1}} $, $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\ell{2}} $, $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^\text{miss} $, $ m_{\mathrm{T2}}(\ell\ell) $, $ m_{\mathrm{T}}\,(\ell\ell) $, $ m_{\mathrm{T}}\,(\ell{1},p_{\mathrm{T}}^\text{miss}) $, $ |\Delta\phi\,(\ell\ell)| $, $ |\Delta\phi\,(\ell{2},p_{\mathrm{T}}^\text{miss})| $, $ |\Delta\phi\,(\ell\ell,\ell{2})| $, $ \eta^{\ell{1}}\times\eta^{\ell{2}} $, and, $ |\eta^{\ell{1}} + \eta^{\ell{2}}| $. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Additional Figure 1-a:
Distribution of $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\ell{1}} $ for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. This variable is used for the training of the BDT discriminants $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\ell{1}} $. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Additional Figure 1-b:
Distribution of $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\ell{2}} $ for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. This variable is used for the training of the BDT discriminants $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\ell{1}} $. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Additional Figure 1-c:
Distribution of $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^\text{miss} $ for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. This variable is used for the training of the BDT discriminants $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\ell{1}} $. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Additional Figure 1-d:
Distribution of $ m_{\mathrm{T2}}(\ell\ell) $ for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. This variable is used for the training of the BDT discriminants $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\ell{1}} $. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Additional Figure 1-e:
Distribution of $ m_{\mathrm{T}}\,(\ell\ell) $ for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. This variable is used for the training of the BDT discriminants $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\ell{1}} $. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Additional Figure 1-f:
Distribution of $ m_{\mathrm{T}}\,(\ell{1},p_{\mathrm{T}}^\text{miss}) $ for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. This variable is used for the training of the BDT discriminants $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\ell{1}} $. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Additional Figure 1-g:
Distribution of $ |\Delta\phi\,(\ell\ell)| $ for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. This variable is used for the training of the BDT discriminants $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\ell{1}} $. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Additional Figure 1-h:
Distribution of $ |\Delta\phi\,(\ell{2},p_{\mathrm{T}}^\text{miss})| $ for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. This variable is used for the training of the BDT discriminants $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\ell{1}} $. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Additional Figure 1-i:
Distribution of $ |\Delta\phi\,(\ell\ell,\ell{2})| $ for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. This variable is used for the training of the BDT discriminants $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\ell{1}} $. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Additional Figure 1-j:
Distribution of $ \eta^{\ell{1}}\times\eta^{\ell{2}} $ for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. This variable is used for the training of the BDT discriminants $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\ell{1}} $. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Additional Figure 1-k:
Distribution of $ |\eta^{\ell{1}} + \eta^{\ell{2}}| $ for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. This variable is used for the training of the BDT discriminants $ p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\ell{1}} $. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Additional Figure 2:
Distributions of the two single BDT discriminants for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. The BDT discriminant trained against the WZ (nonprompt leptons) background is labeled as BDT$ _{\mathrm{W}\mathrm{Z}} $ (BDT$ _{\rm nonprompt} $). The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Additional Figure 2-a:
Distribution of the BDT discriminant trained against the WZ background (BDT$ _{\mathrm{W}\mathrm{Z}} $) for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Additional Figure 2-b:
Distribution of the BDT discriminant trained against the nonprompt leptons background (BDT$ _{\rm nonprompt} $) for the combined $ \mathrm{e}^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ and $ \mu^{\pm}\mu^{\pm} $ final states. The signal and background yields have been normalized to their respective postfit yields. The uncertainty bands represent the total expected uncertainty on the predicted yields, which includes both the statistical and systematic components. |
png pdf |
Additional Figure 3:
Summary of effective cross section measured using different final states at different center-of-mass energies. |
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