CMSHIG21011 ; CERNEP2023132  
Search for a new resonance decaying into two spin0 bosons in a final state with two photons and two bottom quarks in protonproton collisions at $ \sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV  
CMS Collaboration  
2 October 2023  
JHEP 05 (2024) 316  
Abstract: A search for a new boson X is presented using CERN LHC protonproton collision data collected by the CMS experiment at $ \sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV in 20162018, and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb$ ^{1} $. The resonance X decays into either a pair of Higgs bosons HH of mass 125 GeV or an H and a new spin0 boson Y. One H subsequently decays to a pair of photons, and the second H or Y, to a pair of bottom quarks. The explored mass ranges of X are 2601000 GeV and 3001000 GeV, for decays to HH and to HY, respectively, with the Y mass range being 90800 GeV. For a spin0 X hypothesis, the 95% confidence level upper limit on the product of its production cross section and decay branching fraction is observed to be within 0.900.04 fb, depending on the masses of X and Y. The largest deviation from the backgroundonly hypothesis with a local (global) significance of 3.8 (2.8) standard deviations is observed for X and Y masses of 650 and 90 GeV, respectively. The limits are interpreted using several models of new physics.  
Links: eprint arXiv:2310.01643 [hepex] (PDF) ; CDS record ; inSPIRE record ; HepData record ; CADI line (restricted) ; 
Figures & Tables  Summary  Additional Figures  References  CMS Publications 

Figures  
png pdf 
Figure 1:
Feynman diagram showing a treelevel gluongluon fusion production of a BSM resonance X decaying to a pair of spin0 bosons (HH or HY), which then decay to the $ \gamma\gamma\mathrm{b}\overline{\mathrm{b}} $ final state. 
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Figure 2:
The $ m_{\gamma\gamma} $ (upper left), $ m_\text{jj} $ (upper right) and $ m_{\gamma\gamma\text{jj}} $ (lower) distributions in data and MC simulations. The $ m_\text{jj} $ distribution starts at 70 GeV. The signal distributions, shown for different values of $ m_{\mathrm{X}} $ and $ m_{\mathrm{Y}} $ with an assumption of 1 fb cross section, have been scaled by a factor of 10$^3 $. 
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Figure 2a:
The $ m_{\gamma\gamma} $ distribution in data and MC simulations. The distribution starts at 100 GeV. The signal distributions, shown for different values of $ m_{\mathrm{X}} $ and $ m_{\mathrm{Y}} $ with an assumption of 1 fb cross section, have been scaled by a factor of 10$^3 $. 
png pdf 
Figure 2b:
The $ m_\text{jj} $ distribution in data and MC simulations. The distribution starts at 70 GeV. The signal distributions, shown for different values of $ m_{\mathrm{X}} $ and $ m_{\mathrm{Y}} $ with an assumption of 1 fb cross section, have been scaled by a factor of 10$^3 $. 
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Figure 2c:
The $ m_{\gamma\gamma\text{jj}} $ distribution in data and MC simulations. The distribution starts at 200 GeV. The signal distributions, shown for different values of $ m_{\mathrm{X}} $ and $ m_{\mathrm{Y}} $ with an assumption of 1 fb cross section, have been scaled by a factor of 10$^3 $. 
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Figure 3:
The distribution of BDT output in data and MC simulations for a signal in $ m_{\mathrm{X}} $ = 500700 GeV and $ m_{\mathrm{Y}} < $ 300 GeV range. The signal distribution, with an assumption of 1 fb cross section, has been scaled by a factor of 10$^3 $. 
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Figure 4:
$ \widetilde{M}_{\mathrm{X}} $ selection for each $ m_{\mathrm{X}} $ in HH and HY signals. The red and green lines represent the upper and lower boundary of this selection. 
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Figure 5:
Invariant mass distributions $ m_{\gamma\gamma} $ (left) and $ m_\text{jj} $ (right) with the data events (black markers), with $ \widetilde{M}_{\mathrm{X}} $ selection corresponding to an HH signal with $ m_{\mathrm{X}} $ = 400 GeV (upper panel), and to an HY signal with $ m_{\mathrm{X}} $ = 650 GeV and $ m_{\mathrm{Y}} $ = 90 GeV (lower panel). The distributions are shown for the signaldominated category (CAT 0). The red dashed line shows the sum of the fitted signal and background events. The solid black line shows the total background component by summing the resonant and nonresonant background contributions. The green and yellow bands represent the $ \pm $1 and $ \pm $2standard deviations which include the uncertainties in fit to the background component. The lower panel in each plot shows the residual signal yield after the background subtraction. 
png pdf 
Figure 5a:
Invariant mass distribution $ m_{\gamma\gamma} $ with the data events (black markers), with $ \widetilde{M}_{\mathrm{X}} $ selection corresponding to an HH signal with $ m_{\mathrm{X}} $ = 400 GeV. The distributions are shown for the signaldominated category (CAT 0). The red dashed line shows the sum of the fitted signal and background events. The solid black line shows the total background component by summing the resonant and nonresonant background contributions. The green and yellow bands represent the $ \pm $1 and $ \pm $2standard deviations which include the uncertainties in fit to the background component. The lower panel shows the residual signal yield after the background subtraction. 
png pdf 
Figure 5b:
Invariant mass distribution $ m_\text{jj} $ with the data events (black markers), with $ \widetilde{M}_{\mathrm{X}} $ selection corresponding to an HH signal with $ m_{\mathrm{X}} $ = 400 GeV. The distributions are shown for the signaldominated category (CAT 0). The red dashed line shows the sum of the fitted signal and background events. The solid black line shows the total background component by summing the resonant and nonresonant background contributions. The green and yellow bands represent the $ \pm $1 and $ \pm $2standard deviations which include the uncertainties in fit to the background component. The lower panel shows the residual signal yield after the background subtraction. 
png pdf 
Figure 5c:
Invariant mass distribution $ m_{\gamma\gamma} $ with the data events (black markers), with $ \widetilde{M}_{\mathrm{X}} $ selection corresponding to an HY signal with $ m_{\mathrm{X}} $ = 650 GeV and $ m_{\mathrm{Y}} $ = 90 GeV. The distributions are shown for the signaldominated category (CAT 0). The red dashed line shows the sum of the fitted signal and background events. The solid black line shows the total background component by summing the resonant and nonresonant background contributions. The green and yellow bands represent the $ \pm $1 and $ \pm $2standard deviations which include the uncertainties in fit to the background component. The lower panel shows the residual signal yield after the background subtraction. 
png pdf 
Figure 5d:
Invariant mass distribution $ m_\text{jj} $ with the data events (black markers), with $ \widetilde{M}_{\mathrm{X}} $ selection corresponding to an HY signal with $ m_{\mathrm{X}} $ = 650 GeV and $ m_{\mathrm{Y}} $ = 90 GeV. The distributions are shown for the signaldominated category (CAT 0). The red dashed line shows the sum of the fitted signal and background events. The solid black line shows the total background component by summing the resonant and nonresonant background contributions. The green and yellow bands represent the $ \pm $1 and $ \pm $2standard deviations which include the uncertainties in fit to the background component. The lower panel shows the residual signal yield after the background subtraction. 
png pdf 
Figure 6:
Expected and observed 95% CL upper limit on the product of resonant production cross section and branching fraction for spin0 (upper) and spin2 (lower) $ \mathrm{p}\mathrm{p} \to \mathrm{X} \to \mathrm{H}\mathrm{H} \to \gamma\gamma\mathrm{b}\overline{\mathrm{b}} $ signal hypotheses. The dashed and solid black lines represent expected and observed limits, respectively. The green and yellow bands represent the $ \pm $1 and $ \pm $2 standard deviations for the expected limit. The red lines show the theoretical predictions with different energy scales and couplings. 
png pdf 
Figure 6a:
Expected and observed 95% CL upper limit on the product of resonant production cross section and branching fraction for the spin0 $ \mathrm{p}\mathrm{p} \to \mathrm{X} \to \mathrm{H}\mathrm{H} \to \gamma\gamma\mathrm{b}\overline{\mathrm{b}} $ signal hypothesis. The dashed and solid black lines represent expected and observed limits, respectively. The green and yellow bands represent the $ \pm $1 and $ \pm $2 standard deviations for the expected limit. The red lines show the theoretical predictions with different energy scales and couplings. 
png pdf 
Figure 6b:
Expected and observed 95% CL upper limit on the product of resonant production cross section and branching fraction for the spin2 $ \mathrm{p}\mathrm{p} \to \mathrm{X} \to \mathrm{H}\mathrm{H} \to \gamma\gamma\mathrm{b}\overline{\mathrm{b}} $ signal hypothesis. The dashed and solid black lines represent expected and observed limits, respectively. The green and yellow bands represent the $ \pm $1 and $ \pm $2 standard deviations for the expected limit. The red lines show the theoretical predictions with different energy scales and couplings. 
png pdf 
Figure 7:
Expected and observed 95% CL exclusion limit on production cross section for $ \mathrm{p}\mathrm{p} \to \mathrm{X} \to \mathrm{H}{\mathrm{Y}} \to \gamma\gamma\mathrm{b}\overline{\mathrm{b}} $ signal. The dashed and solid black lines represent expected and observed limits, respectively. The green and yellow bands represent the $ \pm $1 and $ \pm $2 standard deviations for the expected limit. The middle plot in the 3rd row shows the highest excess observed for $ m_{\mathrm{X}} $ = 650 GeV and $ m_{\mathrm{Y}} $ = 90 GeV. 
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Figure 8:
Comparison of the expected (left) and observed (right) limits at 95% CL with the maximally allowed cross sections from the NMSSM model where the area within the red contours indicate the excluded mass regions. The limits are displayed as twodimensional binned distributions. 
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Figure 8a:
Expected limits at 95% CL with the maximally allowed cross sections from the NMSSM model where the area within the red contours indicate the excluded mass regions. The limits are displayed as twodimensional binned distributions. 
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Figure 8b:
Observed limits at 95% CL with the maximally allowed cross sections from the NMSSM model where the area within the red contours indicate the excluded mass regions. The limits are displayed as twodimensional binned distributions. 
Tables  
png pdf 
Table 1:
Event preselection criteria. 
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Table 2:
The BDT based event classification according to defined $ m_{\mathrm{X}} $ (and $ m_{\mathrm{Y}} $) ranges for HH (and HY) searches. For HH searches, the column with $ m_{\mathrm{Y}} < $ 300 GeV is used. The number represents the BDT scores showing a decreasing signal purity region from category 0 to 2. 
Summary 
A search for a new resonance X, decaying either to a pair of Higgs bosons HH or to an H and a new spin0 boson Y, is presented. The search uses data from protonproton collisions collected by the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider in 20162018 at a centerofmass energy of 13 TeV, corresponding to 138 fb$ ^{1} $ of integrated luminosity. The search targets beyond standard model particles as predicted by several models of new physics. For X decaying to HH, an $ m_{\mathrm{X}} $ range of 2601000 GeV is covered, while for X decaying to HY, the search range is 3001000 GeV in $ m_{\mathrm{X}} $ and 90800 GeV in $ m_{\mathrm{Y}} $. Results are presented as the upper limits at 95% confidence level on the product of the production cross section of X and its branching fraction to the $ \gamma\gamma\mathrm{b}\overline{\mathrm{b}} $ final state, through either HH or HY decays. Depending upon the mass range, the observed limits for a spin0 resonance X decaying to HH range from 0.820.07 fb, while the expected limits are 0.740.08 fb. For X decaying to HY, the observed limits are 0.900.04 fb, while the expected limits lie in the range 0.790.05 fb, depending on the masses $ m_{\mathrm{X}} $ and $ m_{\mathrm{Y}} $. The data are found to be compatible with the standard model predictions over most of the searched domains. The largest deviation from the backgroundonly hypothesis with a local (global) significance of 3.8 (2.8) standard deviations is observed for $ m_{\mathrm{X}}= $ 650 GeV and $ m_{\mathrm{Y}}= $ 90 GeV. The HY search is performed for the first time in the $ \gamma\gamma\mathrm{b}\overline{\mathrm{b}} $ channel. The limits from the HH search are the most stringent to date for $ m_{\mathrm{X}} $ less than 800 GeV. 
Additional Figures  
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Additional Figure 1:
Variation in signal efficiency for the production of a resonance X decaying, via HY, into a final state of two photons and two bottom quarks, as a function of $ m_{\mathrm{X}} $ and $ m_{\mathrm{Y}} $ using the analysis event selection described in the paper. 
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Additional Figure 2:
Observed local pvalue as a function of $ m_{\text{X}} $ and $ m_{\text{Y}} $. 
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Additional Figure 3:
Bar graph representation of local significance for different $ m_{\text{Y}} $ hypotheses. 
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Additional Figure 4:
Observed and expected upper limits at 95% CL for $ m_{X}= $ 650 GeV as function of $ m_{Y} $. The dashed and solid black lines represent expected and observed limits, respectively. The green and yellow bands represent the 1 and 2 standard deviations for the expected limit. 
png pdf 
Additional Figure 5:
Observed and expected upper limits at 95% CL for $ m_{X}=$ 550700 GeV as function of $ m_{Y} $. The dashed and solid black lines represent expected and observed limits, respectively. The green and yellow bands represent the 1 and 2 standard deviations for the expected limit. Limits are scaled with the order of 10 depending upon $ m_{X} $ as labelled in the figure. 
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