CMSB2G20012 ; CERNEP2023213  
Search for W' bosons decaying to a top and a bottom quark in leptonic final states in protonproton collisions at $ \sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV  
CMS Collaboration  
30 October 2023  
JHEP 05 (2024) 046  
Abstract: A search for W' bosons decaying to a top and a bottom quark in final states including an electron or a muon is performed with the CMS detector at the LHC. The analyzed data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb$ ^{1} $ of protonproton collisions at a centerofmass energy of 13 TeV. Good agreement with the standard model expectation is observed and no evidence for the existence of the W' boson is found over the mass range examined. The largest observed deviation from the standard model expectation is found for a W' boson mass ($ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $) hypothesis of 3.8 TeV with a relative decay width of 1%, with a local (global) significance of 2.6 (2.0) standard deviations. Upper limits on the production cross sections of W' bosons decaying to a top and a bottom quark are set. Left and righthanded W' bosons with $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ below 3.9 and 4.3 TeV, respectively, are excluded at the 95% confidence level, under the assumption that the new particle has a narrow decay width. Limits are also set for relative decay widths up to 30%. These are the most stringent limits to date on this W' boson decay channel.  
Links: eprint arXiv:2310.19893 [hepex] (PDF) ; CDS record ; inSPIRE record ; HepData record ; Physics Briefing ; CADI line (restricted) ; 
Figures  
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Figure 1:
Representative LO Feynman diagram for a W' boson produced in the $ s $channel and decaying to a top and a bottom quark, with a lepton in the final state. 
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Figure 2:
Representative distributions of the invariant mass of the topbottom quark pair, $ m_{\mathrm{t}\mathrm{b}} $, as originating from the W' boson for left (left) and righthanded (right) W' bosons, with relative widths $ \Gamma/m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ of 1, 10, 20, and 30% for a W' boson mass of 3.6 TeV. For the LH, the signal is simulated including the SM production of single top quarks in the $ s $channel to correctly take into account the relative interference with the production of the W' boson. 
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Figure 2a:
Representative distributions of the invariant mass of the topbottom quark pair, $ m_{\mathrm{t}\mathrm{b}} $, as originating from lefthanded W' bosons, with relative widths $ \Gamma/m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ of 1, 10, 20, and 30% for a W' boson mass of 3.6 TeV. For the LH, the signal is simulated including the SM production of single top quarks in the $ s $channel to correctly take into account the relative interference with the production of the W' boson. 
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Figure 2b:
Representative distributions of the invariant mass of the topbottom quark pair, $ m_{\mathrm{t}\mathrm{b}} $, as originating from righthanded W' bosons, with relative widths $ \Gamma/m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ of 1, 10, 20, and 30% for a W' boson mass of 3.6 TeV. For the LH, the signal is simulated including the SM production of single top quarks in the $ s $channel to correctly take into account the relative interference with the production of the W' boson. 
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Figure 3:
A visual representation of the subregions and their usage in the background extraction procedure. The $ x $ axis reports the requirements applied on $ M_{\mathrm{t}} $ in order to define the subregions while the $ y $ axis represents the softdrop mass of the AK8 jet associated to the AK4 jet used to reconstruct the W' boson ($ M_{\mathrm{SD,AK8}} $). 
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Figure 4:
Postfit distributions of $ M_{\mathrm{\ell \nu jj}} $ in the $ \mathrm{\mathrm{R0}_A} $ control subregion for muons (left) or electrons (right). The lower panel reports the data minus the expected number of events normalized to the statistical uncertainty of the data. The orange band represents the systematic uncertainties, also normalized to the statistical uncertainty of the data. 
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Figure 4a:
Postfit distributions of $ M_{\mathrm{\ell \nu jj}} $ in the $ \mathrm{\mathrm{R0}_A} $ control subregion for muons. The lower panel reports the data minus the expected number of events normalized to the statistical uncertainty of the data. The orange band represents the systematic uncertainties, also normalized to the statistical uncertainty of the data. 
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Figure 4b:
Postfit distributions of $ M_{\mathrm{\ell \nu jj}} $ in the $ \mathrm{\mathrm{R0}_A} $ control subregion for electrons. The lower panel reports the data minus the expected number of events normalized to the statistical uncertainty of the data. The orange band represents the systematic uncertainties, also normalized to the statistical uncertainty of the data. 
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Figure 5:
Postfit distributions of $ M_{\mathrm{\ell \nu jj}} $ in the $ \mathrm{\mathrm{R2B}_A} $ (upper), $ \mathrm{\mathrm{R\mathrm{W^{'}}}_A} $ (middle), and $ \mathrm{\mathrm{RT}_A} $ (lower) subregions for muons (left column) and electrons (right column). All process yields and nuisance parameters are set to the values obtained from the background plus signal fit. The signal considered for the fit corresponds to the purely righthanded production of a W' with $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ of 3.6 TeV and a relative width of 1% of the $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $, and is represented by the solid red line. The lower panels show the data minus the expected number of events, normalized to the statistical uncertainty of the data. The orange band represents the systematic uncertainties, also normalized to the statistical uncertainty of the data. 
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Figure 5a:
Postfit distribution of $ M_{\mathrm{\ell \nu jj}} $ in the $ \mathrm{\mathrm{R2B}_A} $ subregion for muons. All process yields and nuisance parameters are set to the values obtained from the background plus signal fit. The signal considered for the fit corresponds to the purely righthanded production of a W' with $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ of 3.6 TeV and a relative width of 1% of the $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $, and is represented by the solid red line. The lower panel shows the data minus the expected number of events, normalized to the statistical uncertainty of the data. The orange band represents the systematic uncertainties, also normalized to the statistical uncertainty of the data. 
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Figure 5b:
Postfit distribution of $ M_{\mathrm{\ell \nu jj}} $ in the $ \mathrm{\mathrm{R2B}_A} $ subregion electrons. All process yields and nuisance parameters are set to the values obtained from the background plus signal fit. The signal considered for the fit corresponds to the purely righthanded production of a W' with $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ of 3.6 TeV and a relative width of 1% of the $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $, and is represented by the solid red line. The lower panel shows the data minus the expected number of events, normalized to the statistical uncertainty of the data. The orange band represents the systematic uncertainties, also normalized to the statistical uncertainty of the data. 
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Figure 5c:
Postfit distribution of $ \mathrm{\mathrm{R\mathrm{W^{'}}}_A} $ subregion for muons. All process yields and nuisance parameters are set to the values obtained from the background plus signal fit. The signal considered for the fit corresponds to the purely righthanded production of a W' with $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ of 3.6 TeV and a relative width of 1% of the $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $, and is represented by the solid red line. The lower panel shows the data minus the expected number of events, normalized to the statistical uncertainty of the data. The orange band represents the systematic uncertainties, also normalized to the statistical uncertainty of the data. 
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Figure 5d:
Postfit distribution of $ \mathrm{\mathrm{R\mathrm{W^{'}}}_A} $ subregion electrons. All process yields and nuisance parameters are set to the values obtained from the background plus signal fit. The signal considered for the fit corresponds to the purely righthanded production of a W' with $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ of 3.6 TeV and a relative width of 1% of the $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $, and is represented by the solid red line. The lower panel shows the data minus the expected number of events, normalized to the statistical uncertainty of the data. The orange band represents the systematic uncertainties, also normalized to the statistical uncertainty of the data. 
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Figure 5e:
Postfit distribution of $ \mathrm{\mathrm{RT}_A} $ subregion for muons. All process yields and nuisance parameters are set to the values obtained from the background plus signal fit. The signal considered for the fit corresponds to the purely righthanded production of a W' with $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ of 3.6 TeV and a relative width of 1% of the $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $, and is represented by the solid red line. The lower panel shows the data minus the expected number of events, normalized to the statistical uncertainty of the data. The orange band represents the systematic uncertainties, also normalized to the statistical uncertainty of the data. 
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Figure 5f:
Postfit distribution of $ \mathrm{\mathrm{RT}_A} $ subregion electrons. All process yields and nuisance parameters are set to the values obtained from the background plus signal fit. The signal considered for the fit corresponds to the purely righthanded production of a W' with $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ of 3.6 TeV and a relative width of 1% of the $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $, and is represented by the solid red line. The lower panel shows the data minus the expected number of events, normalized to the statistical uncertainty of the data. The orange band represents the systematic uncertainties, also normalized to the statistical uncertainty of the data. 
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Figure 6:
Observed and expected 95% CL upper limits on the product of the production cross section for production of a $ \mathrm{t}\mathrm{b} $ quark pair in the $ s $channel, mediated by either a W or a lefthanded W' boson, and including interference terms, given as functions of $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ for a relative width of 1% (upper left), 10% (upper right), 20% (lower left), and 30% (lower right). The inner (green) band and the outer (yellow) band indicate the regions containing 68 and 95%, respectively, of the distribution of limits expected under the backgroundonly hypothesis. The solid red curves show the theoretical expectation at LO. 
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Figure 6a:
Observed and expected 95% CL upper limits on the product of the production cross section for production of a $ \mathrm{t}\mathrm{b} $ quark pair in the $ s $channel, mediated by either a W or a lefthanded W' boson, and including interference terms, given as functions of $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ for a relative width of 1%. The inner (green) band and the outer (yellow) band indicate the regions containing 68 and 95%, respectively, of the distribution of limits expected under the backgroundonly hypothesis. The solid red curves show the theoretical expectation at LO. 
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Figure 6b:
Observed and expected 95% CL upper limits on the product of the production cross section for production of a $ \mathrm{t}\mathrm{b} $ quark pair in the $ s $channel, mediated by either a W or a lefthanded W' boson, and including interference terms, given as functions of $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ for a relative width of 10%. The inner (green) band and the outer (yellow) band indicate the regions containing 68 and 95%, respectively, of the distribution of limits expected under the backgroundonly hypothesis. The solid red curves show the theoretical expectation at LO. 
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Figure 6c:
Observed and expected 95% CL upper limits on the product of the production cross section for production of a $ \mathrm{t}\mathrm{b} $ quark pair in the $ s $channel, mediated by either a W or a lefthanded W' boson, and including interference terms, given as functions of $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ for a relative width of 20%. The inner (green) band and the outer (yellow) band indicate the regions containing 68 and 95%, respectively, of the distribution of limits expected under the backgroundonly hypothesis. The solid red curves show the theoretical expectation at LO. 
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Figure 6d:
Observed and expected 95% CL upper limits on the product of the production cross section for production of a $ \mathrm{t}\mathrm{b} $ quark pair in the $ s $channel, mediated by either a W or a lefthanded W' boson, and including interference terms, given as functions of $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ for a relative width of 30%. The inner (green) band and the outer (yellow) band indicate the regions containing 68 and 95%, respectively, of the distribution of limits expected under the backgroundonly hypothesis. The solid red curves show the theoretical expectation at LO. 
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Figure 7:
Observed and expected 95% CL upper limits on the product of the production cross section for a righthanded W' boson and the W' $ \to \mathrm{t}\mathrm{b} $ branching fraction, as functions of $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ for a relative width of 1% (upper left), 10% (upper right), 20% (lower left), and 30% (lower right). The inner (green) band and the outer (yellow) band indicate the regions containing 68 and 95%, respectively, of the distribution of limits expected under the backgroundonly hypothesis. The solid red curves show the theoretical expectation at LO. 
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Figure 7a:
Observed and expected 95% CL upper limits on the product of the production cross section for a righthanded W' boson and the W' $ \to \mathrm{t}\mathrm{b} $ branching fraction, as functions of $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ for a relative width of 1%. The inner (green) band and the outer (yellow) band indicate the regions containing 68 and 95%, respectively, of the distribution of limits expected under the backgroundonly hypothesis. The solid red curves show the theoretical expectation at LO. 
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Figure 7b:
Observed and expected 95% CL upper limits on the product of the production cross section for a righthanded W' boson and the W' $ \to \mathrm{t}\mathrm{b} $ branching fraction, as functions of $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ for a relative width of 10%. The inner (green) band and the outer (yellow) band indicate the regions containing 68 and 95%, respectively, of the distribution of limits expected under the backgroundonly hypothesis. The solid red curves show the theoretical expectation at LO. 
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Figure 7c:
Observed and expected 95% CL upper limits on the product of the production cross section for a righthanded W' boson and the W' $ \to \mathrm{t}\mathrm{b} $ branching fraction, as functions of $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ for a relative width of 20%. The inner (green) band and the outer (yellow) band indicate the regions containing 68 and 95%, respectively, of the distribution of limits expected under the backgroundonly hypothesis. The solid red curves show the theoretical expectation at LO. 
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Figure 7d:
Observed and expected 95% CL upper limits on the product of the production cross section for a righthanded W' boson and the W' $ \to \mathrm{t}\mathrm{b} $ branching fraction, as functions of $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ for a relative width of 30%. The inner (green) band and the outer (yellow) band indicate the regions containing 68 and 95%, respectively, of the distribution of limits expected under the backgroundonly hypothesis. The solid red curves show the theoretical expectation at LO. 
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Figure 8:
Observed 95% CL upper limit on the production cross section for a left (on the left) and righthanded (on the right) W' boson in the $ \mathrm{t}\mathrm{b} $ final state, as functions of $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ and relative width $ \Gamma/m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $. Numbers in red, written diagonally, represent values of the excluded cross sections that are lower than the theoretical ones for the analyzed model. 
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Figure 8a:
Observed 95% CL upper limit on the production cross section for a lefthanded W' boson in the $ \mathrm{t}\mathrm{b} $ final state, as functions of $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ and relative width $ \Gamma/m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $. Numbers in red, written diagonally, represent values of the excluded cross sections that are lower than the theoretical ones for the analyzed model. 
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Figure 8b:
Observed 95% CL upper limit on the production cross section for a righthanded W' boson in the $ \mathrm{t}\mathrm{b} $ final state, as functions of $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ and relative width $ \Gamma/m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $. Numbers in red, written diagonally, represent values of the excluded cross sections that are lower than the theoretical ones for the analyzed model. 
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Figure 9:
Observed 95% CL upper limit on the production cross section for a generalized leftright coupling of the W' boson to a t and a b quark for a mass of the W' boson of 2 TeV (upper left), 2.8 TeV (upper right), 3.6 TeV (middle left), 4.4 TeV (middle right), 5.2 TeV (lower left), and of 6 TeV (lower right). 
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Figure 9a:
Observed 95% CL upper limit on the production cross section for a generalized leftright coupling of the W' boson to a t and a b quark for a mass of the W' boson of 2 TeV. 
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Figure 9b:
Observed 95% CL upper limit on the production cross section for a generalized leftright coupling of the W' boson to a t and a b quark for a mass of the W' boson of 2.8 TeV. 
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Figure 9c:
Observed 95% CL upper limit on the production cross section for a generalized leftright coupling of the W' boson to a t and a b quark for a mass of the W' boson of 3.6 TeV. 
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Figure 9d:
Observed 95% CL upper limit on the production cross section for a generalized leftright coupling of the W' boson to a t and a b quark for a mass of the W' boson of 4.4 TeV. 
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Figure 9e:
Observed 95% CL upper limit on the production cross section for a generalized leftright coupling of the W' boson to a t and a b quark for a mass of the W' boson of 5.2 TeV. 
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Figure 9f:
Observed 95% CL upper limit on the production cross section for a generalized leftright coupling of the W' boson to a t and a b quark for a mass of the W' boson of 6 TeV. 
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Figure 10:
Expected (left) and observed (right) 95% CL lower limit on $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ for a generalized leftright coupling of the W' boson to a t and a b quark. 
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Figure 10a:
Expected 95% CL lower limit on $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ for a generalized leftright coupling of the W' boson to a t and a b quark. 
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Figure 10b:
Observed 95% CL lower limit on $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ for a generalized leftright coupling of the W' boson to a t and a b quark. 
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Figure A1:
Observed and expected 95% CL upper limits on the product of the production cross section for a righthanded W' boson and the W' $ \to \mathrm{t}\mathrm{b} $ branching fraction, as functions of the $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ for a relative width of 10% (upper left), 20% (upper right), and 30% (lower). The inner (green) band and the outer (yellow) band indicate the regions containing 68 and 95%, respectively, of the distribution of limits expected under the backgroundonly hypothesis. The solid curves show the theoretical expectation at LO in the case that the couplings, and thus the partial widths, are varied together with the total width. In this interpretation the branching fraction of the W' $ \to \mathrm{t}\mathrm{b} $ decays is the same for each value of the width of the W' boson. 
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Figure A1a:
Observed and expected 95% CL upper limits on the product of the production cross section for a righthanded W' boson and the W' $ \to \mathrm{t}\mathrm{b} $ branching fraction, as functions of the $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ for a relative width of 10%. The inner (green) band and the outer (yellow) band indicate the regions containing 68 and 95%, respectively, of the distribution of limits expected under the backgroundonly hypothesis. The solid curves show the theoretical expectation at LO in the case that the couplings, and thus the partial widths, are varied together with the total width. In this interpretation the branching fraction of the W' $ \to \mathrm{t}\mathrm{b} $ decays is the same for each value of the width of the W' boson. 
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Figure A1b:
Observed and expected 95% CL upper limits on the product of the production cross section for a righthanded W' boson and the W' $ \to \mathrm{t}\mathrm{b} $ branching fraction, as functions of the $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ for a relative width of 20%. The inner (green) band and the outer (yellow) band indicate the regions containing 68 and 95%, respectively, of the distribution of limits expected under the backgroundonly hypothesis. The solid curves show the theoretical expectation at LO in the case that the couplings, and thus the partial widths, are varied together with the total width. In this interpretation the branching fraction of the W' $ \to \mathrm{t}\mathrm{b} $ decays is the same for each value of the width of the W' boson. 
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Figure A1c:
Observed and expected 95% CL upper limits on the product of the production cross section for a righthanded W' boson and the W' $ \to \mathrm{t}\mathrm{b} $ branching fraction, as functions of the $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ for a relative width of 30%. The inner (green) band and the outer (yellow) band indicate the regions containing 68 and 95%, respectively, of the distribution of limits expected under the backgroundonly hypothesis. The solid curves show the theoretical expectation at LO in the case that the couplings, and thus the partial widths, are varied together with the total width. In this interpretation the branching fraction of the W' $ \to \mathrm{t}\mathrm{b} $ decays is the same for each value of the width of the W' boson. 
Tables  
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Table 1:
The regions defined in the analysis depending on the number of btagged jets and of the $ \mathrm{j_{\mathrm{t}}} $ and $ \mathrm{j_{\mathrm{W^{'}}}} $ assignment. 
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Table 2:
Leading systematic uncertainties in the signal and background yields. Two representative signal points are considered, at $ m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ = 2 and 6 TeV, both with $ \Gamma/m_{\mathrm{W^{'}}} $ = $ 1 %. The uncertainties are shown by giving the minimum and maximum across all regions. All values are given as percentages, and uncertainties in the backgrounds are the same for all signal masses. 
Summary 
A search is presented for W' bosons decaying to a top and a bottom quark in leptonic final states, making use of 138 fb$ ^{1} $ of protonproton collision data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. Good agreement between data and the standard model expectation is observed. Upper limits at 95% confidence level are set on the product of the W' production cross section and the branching fraction of W' $ \to \mathrm{t}\mathrm{b} $. Multiple hypotheses are considered for the new particle mass, width, and chirality. For a 1% relative width hypothesis, purely righthanded W' bosons are excluded with masses lower than 4.3 TeV. Production cross sections above 66 to 2 fb are excluded for masses between 2 and 6 TeV. Purely lefthanded W' bosons with a 1% relative decay width are excluded for masses lower than 3.9 TeV. The largest excess, with a local (global) significance of 2.6 (2.0) standard deviations, is observed for a hypothesized righthanded W' boson with a mass of 3.8 TeV and a relative width of 1%. For a 10% relative width hypothesis, purely righthanded W' bosons are excluded with masses lower than 2.7 TeV. Purely lefthanded W' bosons are excluded with masses lower than 2.5 TeV for a relative width of 10% of the W' boson mass. For the first time, limits on the production cross section of a W' boson with relative widths of 20% and 30% are set for purely left and righthanded couplings. Scenarios with the presence of both left and righthanded couplings are also tested and limits on their production cross sections are set. For these scenarios, exclusion limits on the W' boson mass are provided for the considered model. These results constitute the most stringent constraints to date on a W' boson decaying to a top and a bottom quark. 
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