CMS-B2G-19-002 ; CERN-EP-2021-159 | ||
Search for heavy resonances decaying to WW, WZ, or WH boson pairs in the lepton plus merged jet final state in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV | ||
CMS Collaboration | ||
13 September 2021 | ||
Phys. Rev. D 105 (2022) 032008 | ||
Abstract: A search for new heavy resonances decaying to pairs of bosons (WW, WZ, or WH) is presented. The analysis uses data from proton-proton collisions collected with the CMS detector at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 137 fb$^{-1}$. One of the bosons is required to be a W boson decaying to an electron or muon and a neutrino, while the other boson is required to be reconstructed as a single jet with mass and substructure compatible with a quark pair from a W, Z, or Higgs boson decay. The search is performed in the resonance mass range between 1.0 and 4.5 TeV and includes a specific search for resonances produced via vector boson fusion. The signal is extracted using a two-dimensional maximum likelihood fit to the jet mass and the diboson invariant mass distributions. No significant excess is observed above the estimated background. Model-independent upper limits on the production cross sections of spin-0, spin-1, and spin-2 heavy resonances are derived as functions of the resonance mass and are interpreted in the context of bulk radion, heavy vector triplet, and bulk graviton models. The reported bounds are the most stringent to date. | ||
Links: e-print arXiv:2109.06055 [hep-ex] (PDF) ; CDS record ; inSPIRE record ; HepData record ; CADI line (restricted) ; |
Figures | |
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Figure 1:
Feynman diagrams for three of the processes studied in this paper: (left) ggF-produced, spin-2 resonance decaying to ${{\mathrm{W} \mathrm{W}} \,\to \,\nu {\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}} ^{\prime}} $; (center) DY-like, charged spin-1 resonance decaying to ${{\mathrm{W} \mathrm{H}} \,\to \,\nu {\mathrm{b} {}\mathrm{\bar{b}}}} $; (right) VBF-produced, charged spin-1 resonance decaying to ${{\mathrm{W} \mathrm{Z}} \,\to \,\nu {\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}}}$. |
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Figure 1-a:
Feynman diagrams for three of the processes studied in this paper: (left) ggF-produced, spin-2 resonance decaying to ${{\mathrm{W} \mathrm{W}} \,\to \,\nu {\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}} ^{\prime}} $; (center) DY-like, charged spin-1 resonance decaying to ${{\mathrm{W} \mathrm{H}} \,\to \,\nu {\mathrm{b} {}\mathrm{\bar{b}}}} $; (right) VBF-produced, charged spin-1 resonance decaying to ${{\mathrm{W} \mathrm{Z}} \,\to \,\nu {\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}}}$. |
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Figure 1-b:
Feynman diagrams for three of the processes studied in this paper: (left) ggF-produced, spin-2 resonance decaying to ${{\mathrm{W} \mathrm{W}} \,\to \,\nu {\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}} ^{\prime}} $; (center) DY-like, charged spin-1 resonance decaying to ${{\mathrm{W} \mathrm{H}} \,\to \,\nu {\mathrm{b} {}\mathrm{\bar{b}}}} $; (right) VBF-produced, charged spin-1 resonance decaying to ${{\mathrm{W} \mathrm{Z}} \,\to \,\nu {\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}}}$. |
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Figure 1-c:
Feynman diagrams for three of the processes studied in this paper: (left) ggF-produced, spin-2 resonance decaying to ${{\mathrm{W} \mathrm{W}} \,\to \,\nu {\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}} ^{\prime}} $; (center) DY-like, charged spin-1 resonance decaying to ${{\mathrm{W} \mathrm{H}} \,\to \,\nu {\mathrm{b} {}\mathrm{\bar{b}}}} $; (right) VBF-produced, charged spin-1 resonance decaying to ${{\mathrm{W} \mathrm{Z}} \,\to \,\nu {\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}}}$. |
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Figure 2:
Uncorrected distributions of the soft-drop jet mass ${m_\text {jet}}$ (upper left), mass-decorrelated $N$-subjettiness ratio ${\tau _{21}^\text {DDT}}$ (upper right), double-b tagger output (lower left), and difference in rapidity ${| \Delta y |}$ between the reconstructed bosons (lower right), for data and simulated events in the top quark enriched control region. The lower panels show the ratio of the data to the simulation. No event categorization is applied. The events with $ {\tau _{21}^\text {DDT}} > $ 0.80 are not shown in any distribution other than ${\tau _{21}^\text {DDT}}$ itself. The vertical bars correspond to the statistical uncertainties of the data. |
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Figure 2-a:
Uncorrected distributions of the soft-drop jet mass ${m_\text {jet}}$ (upper left), mass-decorrelated $N$-subjettiness ratio ${\tau _{21}^\text {DDT}}$ (upper right), double-b tagger output (lower left), and difference in rapidity ${| \Delta y |}$ between the reconstructed bosons (lower right), for data and simulated events in the top quark enriched control region. The lower panels show the ratio of the data to the simulation. No event categorization is applied. The events with $ {\tau _{21}^\text {DDT}} > $ 0.80 are not shown in any distribution other than ${\tau _{21}^\text {DDT}}$ itself. The vertical bars correspond to the statistical uncertainties of the data. |
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Figure 2-b:
Uncorrected distributions of the soft-drop jet mass ${m_\text {jet}}$ (upper left), mass-decorrelated $N$-subjettiness ratio ${\tau _{21}^\text {DDT}}$ (upper right), double-b tagger output (lower left), and difference in rapidity ${| \Delta y |}$ between the reconstructed bosons (lower right), for data and simulated events in the top quark enriched control region. The lower panels show the ratio of the data to the simulation. No event categorization is applied. The events with $ {\tau _{21}^\text {DDT}} > $ 0.80 are not shown in any distribution other than ${\tau _{21}^\text {DDT}}$ itself. The vertical bars correspond to the statistical uncertainties of the data. |
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Figure 2-c:
Uncorrected distributions of the soft-drop jet mass ${m_\text {jet}}$ (upper left), mass-decorrelated $N$-subjettiness ratio ${\tau _{21}^\text {DDT}}$ (upper right), double-b tagger output (lower left), and difference in rapidity ${| \Delta y |}$ between the reconstructed bosons (lower right), for data and simulated events in the top quark enriched control region. The lower panels show the ratio of the data to the simulation. No event categorization is applied. The events with $ {\tau _{21}^\text {DDT}} > $ 0.80 are not shown in any distribution other than ${\tau _{21}^\text {DDT}}$ itself. The vertical bars correspond to the statistical uncertainties of the data. |
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Figure 2-d:
Uncorrected distributions of the soft-drop jet mass ${m_\text {jet}}$ (upper left), mass-decorrelated $N$-subjettiness ratio ${\tau _{21}^\text {DDT}}$ (upper right), double-b tagger output (lower left), and difference in rapidity ${| \Delta y |}$ between the reconstructed bosons (lower right), for data and simulated events in the top quark enriched control region. The lower panels show the ratio of the data to the simulation. No event categorization is applied. The events with $ {\tau _{21}^\text {DDT}} > $ 0.80 are not shown in any distribution other than ${\tau _{21}^\text {DDT}}$ itself. The vertical bars correspond to the statistical uncertainties of the data. |
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Figure 3:
Projections of the 2D signal likelihood along the ${m_{{\mathrm{W}}}}$ dimension (left) and the ${m_\text {jet}}$ dimension (right). The ${m_{{\mathrm{W}}}}$ projections are shown for different mass hypotheses of 1.5, 2.5, and 4.5 TeV for a ${\mathrm{G} _\text {bulk}}$ signal decaying to WW. The ${m_\text {jet}}$ projections are shown for ${{\mathrm{G} _\text {bulk}} \to {\mathrm{W} \mathrm{W}}}$, ${\mathrm{W'} \to {\mathrm{W} \mathrm{Z}}}$, and ${\mathrm{W'} \to {\mathrm{W} \mathrm{H}}}$ for $ {m_\text {X}} = $ 2.5 TeV. All distributions are normalized to the same area. |
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Figure 3-a:
Projections of the 2D signal likelihood along the ${m_{{\mathrm{W}}}}$ dimension (left) and the ${m_\text {jet}}$ dimension (right). The ${m_{{\mathrm{W}}}}$ projections are shown for different mass hypotheses of 1.5, 2.5, and 4.5 TeV for a ${\mathrm{G} _\text {bulk}}$ signal decaying to WW. The ${m_\text {jet}}$ projections are shown for ${{\mathrm{G} _\text {bulk}} \to {\mathrm{W} \mathrm{W}}}$, ${\mathrm{W'} \to {\mathrm{W} \mathrm{Z}}}$, and ${\mathrm{W'} \to {\mathrm{W} \mathrm{H}}}$ for $ {m_\text {X}} = $ 2.5 TeV. All distributions are normalized to the same area. |
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Figure 3-b:
Projections of the 2D signal likelihood along the ${m_{{\mathrm{W}}}}$ dimension (left) and the ${m_\text {jet}}$ dimension (right). The ${m_{{\mathrm{W}}}}$ projections are shown for different mass hypotheses of 1.5, 2.5, and 4.5 TeV for a ${\mathrm{G} _\text {bulk}}$ signal decaying to WW. The ${m_\text {jet}}$ projections are shown for ${{\mathrm{G} _\text {bulk}} \to {\mathrm{W} \mathrm{W}}}$, ${\mathrm{W'} \to {\mathrm{W} \mathrm{Z}}}$, and ${\mathrm{W'} \to {\mathrm{W} \mathrm{H}}}$ for $ {m_\text {X}} = $ 2.5 TeV. All distributions are normalized to the same area. |
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Figure 4:
Comparison between the fit result and data distributions of ${m_\text {jet}}$ in six representative muon-LDy categories. The distributions in the remaining 18 categories show very similar levels of agreement. The statistical uncertainties of the data are shown as vertical bars. The lower panels show the ratio of the data to the fit result. |
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Figure 4-a:
Comparison between the fit result and data distributions of ${m_\text {jet}}$ in six representative muon-LDy categories. The distributions in the remaining 18 categories show very similar levels of agreement. The statistical uncertainties of the data are shown as vertical bars. The lower panels show the ratio of the data to the fit result. |
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Figure 4-b:
Comparison between the fit result and data distributions of ${m_\text {jet}}$ in six representative muon-LDy categories. The distributions in the remaining 18 categories show very similar levels of agreement. The statistical uncertainties of the data are shown as vertical bars. The lower panels show the ratio of the data to the fit result. |
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Figure 4-c:
Comparison between the fit result and data distributions of ${m_\text {jet}}$ in six representative muon-LDy categories. The distributions in the remaining 18 categories show very similar levels of agreement. The statistical uncertainties of the data are shown as vertical bars. The lower panels show the ratio of the data to the fit result. |
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Figure 4-d:
Comparison between the fit result and data distributions of ${m_\text {jet}}$ in six representative muon-LDy categories. The distributions in the remaining 18 categories show very similar levels of agreement. The statistical uncertainties of the data are shown as vertical bars. The lower panels show the ratio of the data to the fit result. |
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Figure 4-e:
Comparison between the fit result and data distributions of ${m_\text {jet}}$ in six representative muon-LDy categories. The distributions in the remaining 18 categories show very similar levels of agreement. The statistical uncertainties of the data are shown as vertical bars. The lower panels show the ratio of the data to the fit result. |
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Figure 4-f:
Comparison between the fit result and data distributions of ${m_\text {jet}}$ in six representative muon-LDy categories. The distributions in the remaining 18 categories show very similar levels of agreement. The statistical uncertainties of the data are shown as vertical bars. The lower panels show the ratio of the data to the fit result. |
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Figure 5:
Comparison between the fit result and data distributions of ${m_{{\mathrm{W}}}}$ in six representative muon-LDy categories. The distributions in the remaining 18 categories show very similar levels of agreement. The statistical uncertainties of the data are shown as vertical bars. The lower panels show the ratio of the data to the fit result. |
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Figure 5-a:
Comparison between the fit result and data distributions of ${m_{{\mathrm{W}}}}$ in six representative muon-LDy categories. The distributions in the remaining 18 categories show very similar levels of agreement. The statistical uncertainties of the data are shown as vertical bars. The lower panels show the ratio of the data to the fit result. |
png pdf |
Figure 5-b:
Comparison between the fit result and data distributions of ${m_{{\mathrm{W}}}}$ in six representative muon-LDy categories. The distributions in the remaining 18 categories show very similar levels of agreement. The statistical uncertainties of the data are shown as vertical bars. The lower panels show the ratio of the data to the fit result. |
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Figure 5-c:
Comparison between the fit result and data distributions of ${m_{{\mathrm{W}}}}$ in six representative muon-LDy categories. The distributions in the remaining 18 categories show very similar levels of agreement. The statistical uncertainties of the data are shown as vertical bars. The lower panels show the ratio of the data to the fit result. |
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Figure 5-d:
Comparison between the fit result and data distributions of ${m_{{\mathrm{W}}}}$ in six representative muon-LDy categories. The distributions in the remaining 18 categories show very similar levels of agreement. The statistical uncertainties of the data are shown as vertical bars. The lower panels show the ratio of the data to the fit result. |
png pdf |
Figure 5-e:
Comparison between the fit result and data distributions of ${m_{{\mathrm{W}}}}$ in six representative muon-LDy categories. The distributions in the remaining 18 categories show very similar levels of agreement. The statistical uncertainties of the data are shown as vertical bars. The lower panels show the ratio of the data to the fit result. |
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Figure 5-f:
Comparison between the fit result and data distributions of ${m_{{\mathrm{W}}}}$ in six representative muon-LDy categories. The distributions in the remaining 18 categories show very similar levels of agreement. The statistical uncertainties of the data are shown as vertical bars. The lower panels show the ratio of the data to the fit result. |
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Figure 6:
Exclusion limits on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for a new spin-2 resonance produced via gluon-gluon fusion (left) or vector boson fusion (right) and decaying to WW, as functions of the resonance mass hypothesis, compared with the predicted cross sections for a spin-2 bulk graviton with $ {\tilde{k}} =$ 0.5. Signal cross section uncertainties are shown as red cross-hatched bands. |
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Figure 6-a:
Exclusion limits on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for a new spin-2 resonance produced via gluon-gluon fusion (left) or vector boson fusion (right) and decaying to WW, as functions of the resonance mass hypothesis, compared with the predicted cross sections for a spin-2 bulk graviton with $ {\tilde{k}} =$ 0.5. Signal cross section uncertainties are shown as red cross-hatched bands. |
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Figure 6-b:
Exclusion limits on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for a new spin-2 resonance produced via gluon-gluon fusion (left) or vector boson fusion (right) and decaying to WW, as functions of the resonance mass hypothesis, compared with the predicted cross sections for a spin-2 bulk graviton with $ {\tilde{k}} =$ 0.5. Signal cross section uncertainties are shown as red cross-hatched bands. |
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Figure 7:
Exclusion limits on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for a new spin-0 resonance produced via gluon-gluon fusion (left) or vector boson fusion (right) and decaying to WW, as functions of the resonance mass hypothesis, compared with the predicted cross sections for a spin-0 bulk radion with $ {\Lambda _\text {R}} = $ 3 TeV and $k r_\text {c} \pi = $ 35. Signal cross section uncertainties are shown as red cross-hatched bands. |
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Figure 7-a:
Exclusion limits on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for a new spin-0 resonance produced via gluon-gluon fusion (left) or vector boson fusion (right) and decaying to WW, as functions of the resonance mass hypothesis, compared with the predicted cross sections for a spin-0 bulk radion with $ {\Lambda _\text {R}} = $ 3 TeV and $k r_\text {c} \pi = $ 35. Signal cross section uncertainties are shown as red cross-hatched bands. |
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Figure 7-b:
Exclusion limits on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for a new spin-0 resonance produced via gluon-gluon fusion (left) or vector boson fusion (right) and decaying to WW, as functions of the resonance mass hypothesis, compared with the predicted cross sections for a spin-0 bulk radion with $ {\Lambda _\text {R}} = $ 3 TeV and $k r_\text {c} \pi = $ 35. Signal cross section uncertainties are shown as red cross-hatched bands. |
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Figure 8:
Exclusion limits on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for a new neutral spin-1 resonance produced via ${\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}}$ annihilation (upper left) or vector boson fusion (upper right) and decaying to WW, for a new charged spin-1 resonance produced via ${\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}}$ annihilation (center left) or vector boson fusion (center right) and decaying to WZ, and for a new charged spin-1 resonance produced via ${\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}}$ annihilation and decaying to WH (lower), as functions of the resonance mass hypothesis, compared with the predicted cross sections for a W' or Z' from HVT model B (for DY) or HVT model C with $ {c_\text {H}} =$ 3 (for VBF). Signal cross section uncertainties are shown as red cross-hatched bands. |
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Figure 8-a:
Exclusion limits on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for a new neutral spin-1 resonance produced via ${\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}}$ annihilation (upper left) or vector boson fusion (upper right) and decaying to WW, for a new charged spin-1 resonance produced via ${\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}}$ annihilation (center left) or vector boson fusion (center right) and decaying to WZ, and for a new charged spin-1 resonance produced via ${\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}}$ annihilation and decaying to WH (lower), as functions of the resonance mass hypothesis, compared with the predicted cross sections for a W' or Z' from HVT model B (for DY) or HVT model C with $ {c_\text {H}} =$ 3 (for VBF). Signal cross section uncertainties are shown as red cross-hatched bands. |
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Figure 8-b:
Exclusion limits on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for a new neutral spin-1 resonance produced via ${\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}}$ annihilation (upper left) or vector boson fusion (upper right) and decaying to WW, for a new charged spin-1 resonance produced via ${\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}}$ annihilation (center left) or vector boson fusion (center right) and decaying to WZ, and for a new charged spin-1 resonance produced via ${\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}}$ annihilation and decaying to WH (lower), as functions of the resonance mass hypothesis, compared with the predicted cross sections for a W' or Z' from HVT model B (for DY) or HVT model C with $ {c_\text {H}} =$ 3 (for VBF). Signal cross section uncertainties are shown as red cross-hatched bands. |
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Figure 8-c:
Exclusion limits on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for a new neutral spin-1 resonance produced via ${\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}}$ annihilation (upper left) or vector boson fusion (upper right) and decaying to WW, for a new charged spin-1 resonance produced via ${\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}}$ annihilation (center left) or vector boson fusion (center right) and decaying to WZ, and for a new charged spin-1 resonance produced via ${\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}}$ annihilation and decaying to WH (lower), as functions of the resonance mass hypothesis, compared with the predicted cross sections for a W' or Z' from HVT model B (for DY) or HVT model C with $ {c_\text {H}} =$ 3 (for VBF). Signal cross section uncertainties are shown as red cross-hatched bands. |
png pdf |
Figure 8-d:
Exclusion limits on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for a new neutral spin-1 resonance produced via ${\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}}$ annihilation (upper left) or vector boson fusion (upper right) and decaying to WW, for a new charged spin-1 resonance produced via ${\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}}$ annihilation (center left) or vector boson fusion (center right) and decaying to WZ, and for a new charged spin-1 resonance produced via ${\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}}$ annihilation and decaying to WH (lower), as functions of the resonance mass hypothesis, compared with the predicted cross sections for a W' or Z' from HVT model B (for DY) or HVT model C with $ {c_\text {H}} =$ 3 (for VBF). Signal cross section uncertainties are shown as red cross-hatched bands. |
png pdf |
Figure 8-e:
Exclusion limits on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for a new neutral spin-1 resonance produced via ${\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}}$ annihilation (upper left) or vector boson fusion (upper right) and decaying to WW, for a new charged spin-1 resonance produced via ${\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}}$ annihilation (center left) or vector boson fusion (center right) and decaying to WZ, and for a new charged spin-1 resonance produced via ${\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}}$ annihilation and decaying to WH (lower), as functions of the resonance mass hypothesis, compared with the predicted cross sections for a W' or Z' from HVT model B (for DY) or HVT model C with $ {c_\text {H}} =$ 3 (for VBF). Signal cross section uncertainties are shown as red cross-hatched bands. |
Tables | |
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Table 1:
Summary of the categorization scheme in the analysis. The 24 analysis categories are defined by all possible combinations of the criteria defined in each column. |
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Table 2:
Summary of the systematic uncertainties considered in the 2D fit, the quantities they affect, and their magnitude, when applicable. When ranges are given, the magnitude of the uncertainty depends on the signal model or mass. The three parts of the table concern shape uncertainties only affecting backgrounds, shape uncertainties in the scales and resolutions, and normalization uncertainties. |
Summary |
A search for new narrow heavy resonances with mass larger than 1 TeV and decaying to WW, WZ, or WH boson pairs is performed using proton-proton collision events at $\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV containing one high-${p_{\mathrm{T}}}$ electron or muon, large missing transverse momentum, and a massive large-radius jet. The data were collected with the CMS detector at the LHC in 2016-2018 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 137 fb$^{-1}$. The signal extraction strategy is structured around a two-dimensional maximum-likelihood fit to the distributions of the diboson reconstructed mass and the soft-drop jet mass. The sensitivity to different final states and production mechanisms is enhanced by the use of event categories that exploit the mass-decorrelated $N$-subjettiness ratio, the double-b tagger, the presence of a pair of forward jets compatible with vector boson fusion production, and the difference in rapidity between the reconstructed bosons. No significant excess is found, and the results are interpreted in terms of upper limits on the production cross section of new narrow resonances in several benchmark models. Spin-2 ggF-produced bulk gravitons with masses below 1.8 TeV and decaying to WW are excluded at 95% CL. Spin-1 DY-produced $ \mathrm{ Z' \to WW } $ resonances lighter than 3.9 TeV, $ \mathrm{ W' \to WZ } $ resonances lighter than 3.9 TeV, and $ \mathrm{ W' \to WH } $ resonances lighter than 4.0 TeV in the context of HVT model B are excluded at 95% CL. Spin-0 ggF-produced bulk radions with masses below 3.1 TeV, decaying to WW, are excluded at 95% CL. Finally, for particles produced exclusively by vector boson fusion, the present data do not yet have sensitivity to exclude the benchmark scenarios under study. The reported limits, also provided in tabulated form in the HEPData record [82] for this analysis, are generally relevant for any narrow heavy resonance with a given spin produced by gluon fusion, $\mathrm{q\bar{q}}$ annihilation, or vector boson fusion. The excluded cross section values set the most stringent experimental bounds to date. |
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