CMS-HIN-19-004 ; CERN-EP-2022-036 | ||
Strange hadron collectivity in pPb and PbPb collisions | ||
CMS Collaboration | ||
29 April 2022 | ||
JHEP 05 (2023) 007 | ||
Abstract: The collective behavior of ${\mathrm{K^0_S}}$ and $\Lambda$/$\overline{\Lambda}$ strange hadrons is studied by measuring the elliptic azimuthal anisotropy ($v_2$) using the scalar-product and multiparticle correlation methods. Proton-lead (pPb) collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy ${\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV and lead-lead (PbPb) collisions at ${\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC are investigated. Nonflow effects in the pPb collisions are studied by using a subevent cumulant analysis and by excluding events where a jet with transverse momentum greater than 20 GeV is present. The strange hadron $v_2$ values extracted in pPb collisions via the four- and six-particle correlation method are found to be nearly identical, suggesting the collective behavior. Comparisons of the pPb and PbPb results for both strange hadrons and charged particles illustrate how event-by-event flow fluctuations depend on the system size. | ||
Links: e-print arXiv:2205.00080 [hep-ex] (PDF) ; CDS record ; inSPIRE record ; HepData record ; CADI line (restricted) ; |
Figures | |
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Figure 1:
Invariant mass distributions of ${\mathrm{K^0_S}}$ mesons (left) and $\Lambda$ baryons (right) candidates within $ {| y |} <$ 1 and 2.8 $ < {p_{\mathrm {T}}} < $ 3.6 GeV in 10-30% centrality PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV. The blue lines show the fitted signal peak. The red lines indicate the fitted background component. |
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Figure 1-a:
Invariant mass distribution of ${\mathrm{K^0_S}}$ meson candidates within $ {| y |} <$ 1 and 2.8 $ < {p_{\mathrm {T}}} < $ 3.6 GeV in 10-30% centrality PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV. The blue lines show the fitted signal peak. The red lines indicate the fitted background component. |
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Figure 1-b:
Invariant mass distribution of $\Lambda$ baryon candidates within $ {| y |} <$ 1 and 2.8 $ < {p_{\mathrm {T}}} < $ 3.6 GeV in 10-30% centrality PbPb collisions at 5.02 TeV. The blue lines show the fitted signal peak. The red lines indicate the fitted background component. |
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Figure 2:
The scalar-product and multiparticle cumulant $v_2$ results of PbPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV for charged hadrons (upper), ${\mathrm{K^0_S}}$ mesons (middle), and $\Lambda$ baryons (lower) in different centrality intervals. The shaded bands are hydrodynamic calculations of $v_2\{2\}$ and $v_2\{4\}$ values with AMPT initial conditions. The vertical bars and shaded boxes show the statistical and systematic uncertainties. |
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Figure 2-a:
The scalar-product and multiparticle cumulant $v_2$ results of PbPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV for charged hadrons in different centrality intervals. The shaded bands are hydrodynamic calculations of $v_2\{2\}$ and $v_2\{4\}$ values with AMPT initial conditions. The vertical bars and shaded boxes show the statistical and systematic uncertainties. |
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Figure 2-b:
The scalar-product and multiparticle cumulant $v_2$ results of PbPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV for ${\mathrm{K^0_S}}$ mesons in different centrality intervals. The shaded bands are hydrodynamic calculations of $v_2\{2\}$ and $v_2\{4\}$ values with AMPT initial conditions. The vertical bars and shaded boxes show the statistical and systematic uncertainties. |
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Figure 2-c:
The scalar-product and multiparticle cumulant $v_2$ results of PbPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV for $\Lambda$ baryons in different centrality intervals. The shaded bands are hydrodynamic calculations of $v_2\{2\}$ and $v_2\{4\}$ values with AMPT initial conditions. The vertical bars and shaded boxes show the statistical and systematic uncertainties. |
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Figure 3:
The scalar-product and multiparticle cumulant $v_2$ results of pPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV for charged hadrons (upper), ${\mathrm{K^0_S}}$ mesons (middle), and $\Lambda$ baryons (lower) in different ${N_\text {trk}^\text {offline}}$ ranges. The scalar-product results are based on Q-vectors that are determined in either the p-going (p-SP) or Pb-going (Pb-SP) side HF calorimeter. The vertical bars and shaded boxes show the statistical and systematic uncertainties. |
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Figure 3-a:
The scalar-product and multiparticle cumulant $v_2$ results of pPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV for charged hadrons in different ${N_\text {trk}^\text {offline}}$ ranges. The scalar-product results are based on Q-vectors that are determined in either the p-going (p-SP) or Pb-going (Pb-SP) side HF calorimeter. The vertical bars and shaded boxes show the statistical and systematic uncertainties. |
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Figure 3-b:
The scalar-product and multiparticle cumulant $v_2$ results of pPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV for ${\mathrm{K^0_S}}$ mesons in different ${N_\text {trk}^\text {offline}}$ ranges. The scalar-product results are based on Q-vectors that are determined in either the p-going (p-SP) or Pb-going (Pb-SP) side HF calorimeter. The vertical bars and shaded boxes show the statistical and systematic uncertainties. |
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Figure 3-c:
The scalar-product and multiparticle cumulant $v_2$ results of pPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV for $\Lambda$ baryons in different ${N_\text {trk}^\text {offline}}$ ranges. The scalar-product results are based on Q-vectors that are determined in either the p-going (p-SP) or Pb-going (Pb-SP) side HF calorimeter. The vertical bars and shaded boxes show the statistical and systematic uncertainties. |
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Figure 4:
The charged-particle $v_2\{4\}$ and $v_2\{6\}$ distributions for pPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV with and without rejecting jet events (upper) and their ratios (lower) in different ${N_\text {trk}^\text {offline}}$ ranges. The vertical bars and shaded boxes show the statistical and systematic uncertainties. |
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Figure 4-a:
The charged-particle $v_2\{4\}$ and $v_2\{6\}$ distributions for pPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV with and without rejecting jet events in different ${N_\text {trk}^\text {offline}}$ ranges. The vertical bars and shaded boxes show the statistical and systematic uncertainties. |
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Figure 4-b:
Ratio of the charged-particle $v_2\{4\}$ and $v_2\{6\}$ distributions for pPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV with and without rejecting jet events in different ${N_\text {trk}^\text {offline}}$ ranges. The vertical bars and shaded boxes show the statistical and systematic uncertainties. |
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Figure 5:
The standard 4-particle $v_2\{4\}$ and subevent 4-particle ${v_2\{4,\text {Sub}\}}$ values from PbPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV and pPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV for charged hadrons (upper), ${\mathrm{K^0_S}}$ mesons (middle), and $\Lambda$ baryons (lower) in different centrality intervals. The vertical bars and shaded boxes show the statistical and systematic uncertainties. |
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Figure 5-a:
The standard 4-particle $v_2\{4\}$ and subevent 4-particle ${v_2\{4,\text {Sub}\}}$ values from PbPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV and pPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV for charged hadrons in different centrality intervals. The vertical bars and shaded boxes show the statistical and systematic uncertainties. |
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Figure 5-b:
The standard 4-particle $v_2\{4\}$ and subevent 4-particle ${v_2\{4,\text {Sub}\}}$ values from PbPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV and pPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV for ${\mathrm{K^0_S}}$ mesons in different centrality intervals. The vertical bars and shaded boxes show the statistical and systematic uncertainties. |
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Figure 5-c:
The standard 4-particle $v_2\{4\}$ and subevent 4-particle ${v_2\{4,\text {Sub}\}}$ values from PbPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV and pPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV for $\Lambda$ baryons in different centrality intervals. The vertical bars and shaded boxes show the statistical and systematic uncertainties. |
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Figure 6:
The $v_2\{4\}$ and ${v_2\{4,\text {Sub}\}}$ values from pPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV for charged hadrons in different ${N_\text {trk}^\text {offline}}$ ranges. The vertical bars and shaded boxes show the statistical and systematic uncertainties. |
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Figure 7:
The $ {v_2\{4,\text {Sub}\}} /v_2\{4\}$ ratios for charged hadrons, ${\mathrm{K^0_S}}$ mesons and $\Lambda$ baryons, for PbPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV in different centrality intervals (upper) and pPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV in different ${N_\text {trk}^\text {offline}}$ ranges (lower). The vertical bars and shaded boxes show the statistical and systematic uncertainties. |
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Figure 7-a:
The $ {v_2\{4,\text {Sub}\}} /v_2\{4\}$ ratios for charged hadrons, ${\mathrm{K^0_S}}$ mesons and $\Lambda$ baryons, for PbPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV in different centrality intervals. The vertical bars and shaded boxes show the statistical and systematic uncertainties. |
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Figure 7-b:
The $ {v_2\{4,\text {Sub}\}} /v_2\{4\}$ ratios for charged hadrons, ${\mathrm{K^0_S}}$ mesons and $\Lambda$ baryons, for pPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV in different ${N_\text {trk}^\text {offline}}$ ranges. The vertical bars and shaded boxes show the statistical and systematic uncertainties. |
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Figure 8:
The $v_2$ fluctuation results for PbPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV in different centrality intervals and pPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV with 185 $\le {N_\text {trk}^\text {offline}} <$ 250 using $v_2\{\text {Pb-SP}\}$ for charged hadrons (upper), ${\mathrm{K^0_S}}$ mesons (middle), and $\Lambda$ baryons (lower). The shaded bands are hydrodynamic calculations of $v_2$ fluctuations with AMPT and TRENTo initial conditions in PbPb collisions [64]. The vertical bars and shaded boxes show the statistical and systematic uncertainties. |
png pdf |
Figure 8-a:
The $v_2$ fluctuation results for PbPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV in different centrality intervals and pPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV with 185 $\le {N_\text {trk}^\text {offline}} <$ 250 using $v_2\{\text {Pb-SP}\}$ for charged hadrons. The shaded bands are hydrodynamic calculations of $v_2$ fluctuations with AMPT and TRENTo initial conditions in PbPb collisions [64]. The vertical bars and shaded boxes show the statistical and systematic uncertainties. |
png pdf |
Figure 8-b:
The $v_2$ fluctuation results for PbPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV in different centrality intervals and pPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV with 185 $\le {N_\text {trk}^\text {offline}} <$ 250 using $v_2\{\text {Pb-SP}\}$ for ${\mathrm{K^0_S}}$ mesons. The shaded bands are hydrodynamic calculations of $v_2$ fluctuations with AMPT and TRENTo initial conditions in PbPb collisions [64]. The vertical bars and shaded boxes show the statistical and systematic uncertainties. |
png pdf |
Figure 8-c:
The $v_2$ fluctuation results for PbPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV in different centrality intervals and pPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV with 185 $\le {N_\text {trk}^\text {offline}} <$ 250 using $v_2\{\text {Pb-SP}\}$ for $\Lambda$ baryons. The shaded bands are hydrodynamic calculations of $v_2$ fluctuations with AMPT and TRENTo initial conditions in PbPb collisions [64]. The vertical bars and shaded boxes show the statistical and systematic uncertainties. |
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Figure 9:
The $v_2$ fluctuation results of pPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV for charged hadrons derived from different multiparticle correlations in different ${N_\text {trk}^\text {offline}}$ ranges. The vertical bars and shaded boxes show the statistical and systematic uncertainties. |
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Figure 10:
The $v_2\{6\}/v_2\{4\}$ (upper) and $v_2\{8\}/v_2\{4\}$ (lower) ratios in PbPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV for charged hadrons, ${\mathrm{K^0_S}}$ mesons, and $\Lambda$ baryons in different centrality intervals. The vertical bars show the statistical uncertainties. The uncertainties are treated as uncorrelated for the ratios. |
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Figure 10-a:
The $v_2\{6\}/v_2\{4\}$ ratio in PbPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV for charged hadrons, ${\mathrm{K^0_S}}$ mesons, and $\Lambda$ baryons in different centrality intervals. The vertical bars show the statistical uncertainties. The uncertainties are treated as uncorrelated for the ratios. |
png pdf |
Figure 10-b:
The $v_2\{8\}/v_2\{4\}$ ratio in PbPb collisions at $ {\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV for charged hadrons, ${\mathrm{K^0_S}}$ mesons, and $\Lambda$ baryons in different centrality intervals. The vertical bars show the statistical uncertainties. The uncertainties are treated as uncorrelated for the ratios. |
Summary |
The elliptic azimuthal anisotropy $v_2$ values have been measured using the scalar-product and the multiparticle $Q$-cumulant methods for ${\mathrm{K^0_S}}$ mesons, $\Lambda$ baryons, and charged hadrons in lead-lead (PbPb) collisions at ${\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV and high-multiplicity proton-lead (pPb) collisions at ${\sqrt {\smash [b]{s_{_{\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 8.16 TeV. For the first time, multiparticle correlations of identified strange particles have been studied for pPb collisions. The hydrodynamic model calculations of scalar-product $v_2\{\text{SP}\}$ and 4-particle $v_2\{4\}$ values for ${\mathrm{K^0_S}}$ mesons, $\Lambda$ baryons and charged hadrons using different initial conditions are found to be qualitatively consistent with the observations in PbPb collisions. No obvious particle species dependence of the fluctuations in the $v_2$ values is observed for either the PbPb or pPb systems, indicating an origin of observed $v_2$ fluctuations from the initial-state geometry. The flow fluctuations are observed to be larger in pPb collisions at low transverse momentum (${p_{\mathrm{T}}}$). However, once jet correlations are removed, the pPb fluctuations are similar to those observed in peripheral PbPb collisions at high ${p_{\mathrm{T}}}$. Nonflow effects are studied for the multiparticle cumulant results. A large difference between the 4- and 6-particle $v_2$ values in pPb collisions that is not present for PbPb collisions can be explained by jet-related correlations. These nonflow correlations are suppressed by rejecting events with at least one jet with ${p_{\mathrm{T}}} > $ 20 GeV. A subevent cumulant method is also performed to reduce short-range correlation effects in pPb and PbPb collisions. Whereas the jet rejection study results in higher values for $v_2\{4\}$ as compared to the standard method, the subevent method leads to smaller values. This difference may be attributed to the effect of flow decorrelations on the subevent cumulant method. |
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Compact Muon Solenoid LHC, CERN |