CMS-B2G-20-008 ; CERN-EP-2021-158 | ||
Search for heavy resonances decaying to Z($ \nu\bar{\nu} $)V($ \mathrm{q}\mathrm{\bar{q}}' $) in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV | ||
CMS Collaboration | ||
17 September 2021 | ||
Phys. Rev. D 106 (2022) 012004 | ||
Abstract: A search is presented for heavy bosons decaying to Z($ \nu\bar{\nu} $)V($ \mathrm{q}\mathrm{\bar{q}}' $), where V can be a W or a Z boson. A sample of proton-proton collision data at $\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV was collected by the CMS experiment during 2016-2018. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 137 fb$^{-1}$. The event categorization is based on the presence of high-momentum jets in the forward region to identify production through weak vector boson fusion. Additional categorization uses jet substructure techniques and the presence of large missing transverse momentum to identify W and Z bosons decaying to quarks and neutrinos, respectively. The dominant standard model backgrounds are estimated using data taken from control regions. The results are interpreted in terms of radion, W' boson, and graviton models, under the assumption that these bosons are produced via gluon-gluon fusion, Drell-Yan, or weak vector boson fusion processes. No evidence is found for physics beyond the standard model. Upper limits are set at 95% confidence level on various types of hypothetical new bosons. Observed (expected) exclusion limits on the masses of these bosons range from 1.2 to 4.0 (1.1 to 3.7) TeV. | ||
Links: e-print arXiv:2109.08268 [hep-ex] (PDF) ; CDS record ; inSPIRE record ; HepData record ; CADI line (restricted) ; |
Figures | |
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Figure 1:
Representative Feynman diagrams for various production modes of a heavy resonance X. These modes are: a ggF-produced spin-0 or spin-2 resonance decaying to ${{\mathrm{Z Z} \to {\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}} \nu \bar{\nu}}}$ (left), a DY-produced spin-1 resonance decaying to ${\mathrm{W Z} \to {\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}} '\nu \bar{\nu}}$ (center), and a VBF-produced spin-1 resonance decaying to ${\mathrm{W Z} \to {\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}} '\nu \bar{\nu}}$ (right). |
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Figure 1-a:
Representative Feynman diagrams for various production modes of a heavy resonance X. These modes are: a ggF-produced spin-0 or spin-2 resonance decaying to ${{\mathrm{Z Z} \to {\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}} \nu \bar{\nu}}}$ (left), a DY-produced spin-1 resonance decaying to ${\mathrm{W Z} \to {\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}} '\nu \bar{\nu}}$ (center), and a VBF-produced spin-1 resonance decaying to ${\mathrm{W Z} \to {\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}} '\nu \bar{\nu}}$ (right). |
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Figure 1-b:
Representative Feynman diagrams for various production modes of a heavy resonance X. These modes are: a ggF-produced spin-0 or spin-2 resonance decaying to ${{\mathrm{Z Z} \to {\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}} \nu \bar{\nu}}}$ (left), a DY-produced spin-1 resonance decaying to ${\mathrm{W Z} \to {\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}} '\nu \bar{\nu}}$ (center), and a VBF-produced spin-1 resonance decaying to ${\mathrm{W Z} \to {\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}} '\nu \bar{\nu}}$ (right). |
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Figure 1-c:
Representative Feynman diagrams for various production modes of a heavy resonance X. These modes are: a ggF-produced spin-0 or spin-2 resonance decaying to ${{\mathrm{Z Z} \to {\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}} \nu \bar{\nu}}}$ (left), a DY-produced spin-1 resonance decaying to ${\mathrm{W Z} \to {\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}} '\nu \bar{\nu}}$ (center), and a VBF-produced spin-1 resonance decaying to ${\mathrm{W Z} \to {\mathrm{q} \mathrm{\bar{q}}} '\nu \bar{\nu}}$ (right). |
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Figure 2:
Simulated distributions are shown for the cosine of the decay angle of SM vector bosons in the rest frame of a parent particle with a mass ($m_\mathrm{X} $) of 2 TeV. Solid lines represent VBF scenarios. Dashed lines represent ggF/DY scenarios. |
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Figure 3:
Distributions of ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$ for ggF/DY- (left) and VBF-produced (right) resonances X of mass 4.5 TeV. Events used are from all SR and CR combined. |
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Figure 3-a:
Distribution of ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$ for ggF/DY-produced resonance X of mass 4.5 TeV. Events used are from all SR and CR combined. |
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Figure 3-b:
Distribution of ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$ for VBF-produced resonance X of mass 4.5 TeV. Events used are from all SR and CR combined. |
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Figure 4:
The distributions of the transfer factors ($\alpha $) versus ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$ in the various event categories are shown. The last bin corresponds to the value obtained by integrating events above the penultimate bin. |
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Figure 5:
Comparison of background estimations and observations in the high-purity ggF/DY (upper left), high-purity VBF (upper right), low-purity ggF/DY (lower left), and low-purity VBF (lower right) validation signal regions. The lower panel shows the ratio of the estimated and the observed event yields. The hashed band in the ratio represents the total uncertainty in the corresponding SR. The red line (lower left) is a fit to the ratio of prediction to the data in the LP ggF/DY vSR. |
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Figure 5-a:
Comparison of background estimations and observations in the high-purity ggF/DY validation signal region. The lower panel shows the ratio of the estimated and the observed event yields. The hashed band in the ratio represents the total uncertainty in the corresponding SR. |
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Figure 5-b:
Comparison of background estimations and observations in the high-purity VBF validation signal region. The lower panel shows the ratio of the estimated and the observed event yields. The hashed band in the ratio represents the total uncertainty in the corresponding SR. |
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Figure 5-c:
Comparison of background estimations and observations in the low-purity ggF/DY validation signal region. The lower panel shows the ratio of the estimated and the observed event yields. The hashed band in the ratio represents the total uncertainty in the corresponding SR. |
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Figure 5-d:
Comparison of background estimations and observations in the low-purity VBF validation signal region. The lower panel shows the ratio of the estimated and the observed event yields. The hashed band in the ratio represents the total uncertainty in the corresponding SR. |
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Figure 6:
Distributions of ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$ for high-purity ggF/DY (upper left) and VBF (upper right), and low-purity ggF/DY (lower left) and VBF (lower right) CR events after performing background-only fits. The last bin in the upper left, upper right, lower left, and lower right plot corresponds to the yields integrated above 3, 2.3, 3.5, and 2.7 TeV, respectively. The top panel of each plot shows the post-fit prediction, represented by filled histograms, compared to observed yields, represented by black points. Both the ggF and VBF-produced 1 TeV graviton signals are shown in each plot, represented by the open purple and red histograms, respectively. The signal is normalized to 10 fb. The blue hashed area represents the total uncertainty from the post-fit predicted event yield as a function of ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$. The middle panel of each plot shows the ratio of data and post-fit predictions in blue. The bottom panel of each plot shows the difference between the observed event yields and the post-fit predictions normalized by the quadratic sum of the statistical uncertainty of the observed yield and the total uncertainty from the post-fit prediction in each ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$ bin. |
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Figure 6-a:
Distribution of ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$ for high-purity ggF/DY CR events after performing background-only fits. The last bin corresponds to the yields integrated above 3 TeV. The top panel shows the post-fit prediction, represented by filled histograms, compared to observed yields, represented by black points. Both the ggF and VBF-produced 1 TeV graviton signals are shown, represented by the open purple and red histograms, respectively. The signal is normalized to 10 fb. The blue hashed area represents the total uncertainty from the post-fit predicted event yield as a function of ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$. The middle panel shows the ratio of data and post-fit predictions in blue. The bottom panel shows the difference between the observed event yields and the post-fit predictions normalized by the quadratic sum of the statistical uncertainty of the observed yield and the total uncertainty from the post-fit prediction in each ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$ bin. |
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Figure 6-b:
Distribution of ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$ for high-purity VBF CR events after performing background-only fits. The last bin corresponds to the yields integrated above 2.3 TeV. The top panel shows the post-fit prediction, represented by filled histograms, compared to observed yields, represented by black points. Both the ggF and VBF-produced 1 TeV graviton signals are shown, represented by the open purple and red histograms, respectively. The signal is normalized to 10 fb. The blue hashed area represents the total uncertainty from the post-fit predicted event yield as a function of ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$. The middle panel shows the ratio of data and post-fit predictions in blue. The bottom panel shows the difference between the observed event yields and the post-fit predictions normalized by the quadratic sum of the statistical uncertainty of the observed yield and the total uncertainty from the post-fit prediction in each ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$ bin. |
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Figure 6-c:
Distribution of ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$ for low-purity ggF/DY CR events after performing background-only fits. The last bin corresponds to the yields integrated above 3.5 TeV. The top panel shows the post-fit prediction, represented by filled histograms, compared to observed yields, represented by black points. Both the ggF and VBF-produced 1 TeV graviton signals are shown, represented by the open purple and red histograms, respectively. The signal is normalized to 10 fb. The blue hashed area represents the total uncertainty from the post-fit predicted event yield as a function of ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$. The middle panel shows the ratio of data and post-fit predictions in blue. The bottom panel shows the difference between the observed event yields and the post-fit predictions normalized by the quadratic sum of the statistical uncertainty of the observed yield and the total uncertainty from the post-fit prediction in each ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$ bin. |
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Figure 6-d:
Distribution of ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$ for low-purity VBF CR events after performing background-only fits. The last bin corresponds to the yields integrated above 2.7 TeV. The top panel shows the post-fit prediction, represented by filled histograms, compared to observed yields, represented by black points. Both the ggF and VBF-produced 1 TeV graviton signals are shown, represented by the open purple and red histograms, respectively. The signal is normalized to 10 fb. The blue hashed area represents the total uncertainty from the post-fit predicted event yield as a function of ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$. The middle panel shows the ratio of data and post-fit predictions in blue. The bottom panel shows the difference between the observed event yields and the post-fit predictions normalized by the quadratic sum of the statistical uncertainty of the observed yield and the total uncertainty from the post-fit prediction in each ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$ bin. |
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Figure 7:
Distribution of the predicted and observed event yields versus ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$ for high-purity ggF/DY (upper left) and VBF (upper right), and low-purity ggF/DY (lower left) and VBF (lower right) SR events. The last bin in each plot corresponds to the yields integrated above the penultimate bin. The top panel of each plot shows the prediction based on a background-only fit to data, represented by filled histograms, compared to observed yields, represented by black points. Both the ggF and VBF-produced 1 TeV graviton signals are shown in each plot, represented by the open purple and red histograms, respectively. The signal is normalized to 10 fb. The middle panel of each plot shows the ratio of data and post-fit predictions in blue. The blue hashed area represents the total uncertainty from the post-fit predicted event yield as a function of ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$. The bottom panel of each plot shows the difference between the observed event yields and the post-fit predictions normalized by the quadratic sum of the statistical uncertainty of the observed yield and the total uncertainty from the post-fit prediction in each ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$ bin. |
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Figure 7-a:
Distribution of the predicted and observed event yields versus ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$ for high-purity ggF/DY SR events. The last bin corresponds to the yields integrated above the penultimate bin. The top panel shows the prediction based on a background-only fit to data, represented by filled histograms, compared to observed yields, represented by black points. Both the ggF and VBF-produced 1 TeV graviton signals are shown in each plot, represented by the open purple and red histograms, respectively. The signal is normalized to 10 fb. The middle panel shows the ratio of data and post-fit predictions in blue. The blue hashed area represents the total uncertainty from the post-fit predicted event yield as a function of ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$. The bottom panel shows the difference between the observed event yields and the post-fit predictions normalized by the quadratic sum of the statistical uncertainty of the observed yield and the total uncertainty from the post-fit prediction in each ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$ bin. |
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Figure 7-b:
Distribution of the predicted and observed event yields versus ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$ for high-purity ggF/DY SR events. The last bin corresponds to the yields integrated above the penultimate bin. The top panel shows the prediction based on a background-only fit to data, represented by filled histograms, compared to observed yields, represented by black points. Both the ggF and VBF-produced 1 TeV graviton signals are shown in each plot, represented by the open purple and red histograms, respectively. The signal is normalized to 10 fb. The middle panel shows the ratio of data and post-fit predictions in blue. The blue hashed area represents the total uncertainty from the post-fit predicted event yield as a function of ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$. The bottom panel shows the difference between the observed event yields and the post-fit predictions normalized by the quadratic sum of the statistical uncertainty of the observed yield and the total uncertainty from the post-fit prediction in each ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$ bin. |
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Figure 7-c:
Distribution of the predicted and observed event yields versus ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$ for low-purity ggF/DY SR events. The last bin corresponds to the yields integrated above the penultimate bin. The top panel shows the prediction based on a background-only fit to data, represented by filled histograms, compared to observed yields, represented by black points. Both the ggF and VBF-produced 1 TeV graviton signals are shown in each plot, represented by the open purple and red histograms, respectively. The signal is normalized to 10 fb. The middle panel shows the ratio of data and post-fit predictions in blue. The blue hashed area represents the total uncertainty from the post-fit predicted event yield as a function of ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$. The bottom panel shows the difference between the observed event yields and the post-fit predictions normalized by the quadratic sum of the statistical uncertainty of the observed yield and the total uncertainty from the post-fit prediction in each ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$ bin. |
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Figure 7-d:
Distribution of the predicted and observed event yields versus ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$ for low-purity VBF SR events. The last bin corresponds to the yields integrated above the penultimate bin. The top panel shows the prediction based on a background-only fit to data, represented by filled histograms, compared to observed yields, represented by black points. Both the ggF and VBF-produced 1 TeV graviton signals are shown in each plot, represented by the open purple and red histograms, respectively. The signal is normalized to 10 fb. The middle panel shows the ratio of data and post-fit predictions in blue. The blue hashed area represents the total uncertainty from the post-fit predicted event yield as a function of ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$. The bottom panel shows the difference between the observed event yields and the post-fit predictions normalized by the quadratic sum of the statistical uncertainty of the observed yield and the total uncertainty from the post-fit prediction in each ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$ bin. |
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Figure 8:
Expected and observed 95% CL upper limits on the product of the radion (R) production cross section and the $\mathrm{R} \to \mathrm{ZZ} $ branching fraction versus the radion mass are shown as dashed and solid black lines, respectively. Green and yellow bands, respectively, represent the 68% and 95% confidence intervals of the expected limit. The red curves show the product of the theoretical radion production cross sections and their branching fractions to ZZ. The hashed red areas represent the theoretical cross section uncertainty due to limited knowledge of PDFs and scale choices. Limits and theory cross sections for ggF-produced radions are shown in the left figure, while the right figure shows the same for VBF-produced radions. |
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Figure 8-a:
Limits and theory cross sections for ggF-produced radions are shown. Expected and observed 95% CL upper limits on the product of the radion (R) production cross section and the $\mathrm{R} \to \mathrm{ZZ} $ branching fraction versus the radion mass are shown as dashed and solid black lines, respectively. Green and yellow bands, respectively, represent the 68% and 95% confidence intervals of the expected limit. The red curves show the product of the theoretical radion production cross sections and their branching fractions to ZZ. The hashed red areas represent the theoretical cross section uncertainty due to limited knowledge of PDFs and scale choices. |
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Figure 8-b:
Limits and theory cross sections for VBF-produced radions are shown. Expected and observed 95% CL upper limits on the product of the radion (R) production cross section and the $\mathrm{R} \to \mathrm{ZZ} $ branching fraction versus the radion mass are shown as dashed and solid black lines, respectively. Green and yellow bands, respectively, represent the 68% and 95% confidence intervals of the expected limit. The red curves show the product of the theoretical radion production cross sections and their branching fractions to ZZ. The hashed red areas represent the theoretical cross section uncertainty due to limited knowledge of PDFs and scale choices. |
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Figure 9:
Expected and observed 95% CL upper limits on the product of the W' production cross section and the $\mathrm{W'} \to W Z $ branching fraction versus the W' mass are shown as dashed and solid black lines, respectively. Green and yellow bands, respectively, represent the 68% and 95% confidence intervals of the expected limit. The red curves show the product of the theoretical W' boson production cross sections and their branching fractions to WZ. The hashed red areas represent the theoretical cross section uncertainty due to limited knowledge of PDFs and scale choices. Limits and theory cross sections for DY-produced W' bosons are shown in the left figure, while the right figure shows the same for VBF-produced W' bosons. The grey curves in the left plot show the previous CMS results with 36 fb$^{-1}$ of data. |
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Figure 9-a:
Expected and observed 95% CL upper limits on the product of the W' production cross section and the $\mathrm{W'} \to W Z $ branching fraction versus the W' mass are shown as dashed and solid black lines, respectively. Green and yellow bands, respectively, represent the 68% and 95% confidence intervals of the expected limit. The red curves show the product of the theoretical W' boson production cross sections and their branching fractions to WZ. The hashed red areas represent the theoretical cross section uncertainty due to limited knowledge of PDFs and scale choices. Limits and theory cross sections for DY-produced W' bosons are shown. The grey curves in the left plot show the previous CMS results with 36 fb$^{-1}$ of data. |
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Figure 9-b:
Expected and observed 95% CL upper limits on the product of the W' production cross section and the $\mathrm{W'} \to W Z $ branching fraction versus the W' mass are shown as dashed and solid black lines, respectively. Green and yellow bands, respectively, represent the 68% and 95% confidence intervals of the expected limit. The red curves show the product of the theoretical W' boson production cross sections and their branching fractions to WZ. The hashed red areas represent the theoretical cross section uncertainty due to limited knowledge of PDFs and scale choices. Limits and theory cross sections for VBF-produced W' bosons are shown. The grey curves in the left plot show the previous CMS results with 36 fb$^{-1}$ of data. |
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Figure 10:
Expected and observed 95% CL upper limits on the product of the graviton (G) production cross section and the $\mathrm{G} \to \mathrm{ZZ} $ branching fraction versus the graviton mass are shown as dashed and solid black lines, respectively. Green and yellow bands, respectively, represent 68% and 95% confidence intervals of the expected limit. The red curves show the product of the theoretical graviton production cross sections and their branching fractions to ZZ. The hashed red areas represent the theoretical cross section uncertainty due to limited knowledge of PDFs and scale choices. Limits and theory cross sections for ggF-produced gravitons are shown in the left figure, while the right figure shows the same for VBF-produced gravitons. The grey curves in the left plot show the previous CMS results with 36 fb$^{-1}$ of data. |
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Figure 10-a:
Expected and observed 95% CL upper limits on the product of the graviton (G) production cross section and the $\mathrm{G} \to \mathrm{ZZ} $ branching fraction versus the graviton mass are shown as dashed and solid black lines, respectively. Green and yellow bands, respectively, represent 68% and 95% confidence intervals of the expected limit. The red curves show the product of the theoretical graviton production cross sections and their branching fractions to ZZ. The hashed red areas represent the theoretical cross section uncertainty due to limited knowledge of PDFs and scale choices. |
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Figure 10-b:
Expected and observed 95% CL upper limits on the product of the graviton (G) production cross section and the $\mathrm{G} \to \mathrm{ZZ} $ branching fraction versus the graviton mass are shown as dashed and solid black lines, respectively. Green and yellow bands, respectively, represent 68% and 95% confidence intervals of the expected limit. The red curves show the product of the theoretical graviton production cross sections and their branching fractions to ZZ. The hashed red areas represent the theoretical cross section uncertainty due to limited knowledge of PDFs and scale choices. |
Tables | |
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Table 1:
Summary of the event selections. |
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Table 2:
Summary of systematic uncertainties (in %) related to the SM background predictions in various regions. Columns two and three tabulate the representative size of effects on $\alpha $ in the VBF and ggF/DY events categories, respectively. Columns four through seven tabulate the typical size of effects on the prediction of resonant background yields in the VBF SR, VBF CR, ggF/DY SR, and ggF/DY CR, respectively. All of these numbers are the pre-fit values. For some systematic uncertainties, the variation in different ${m_{\mathrm {T}}}$ bins are shown as a range. Values of LP that are different from those of HP are shown in parentheses. |
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Table 3:
Summary of the typical size of systematic uncertainties (in %) in the predicted signal yields in various regions. All of these numbers are the pre-fit values. A range is given for the shape systematic uncertainties. Values of LP that are different from those of HP are shown in parentheses. |
Summary |
A search has been presented for new bosonic states decaying either to a pair of Z bosons or to a W boson and a Z boson. The analyzed final states require large missing transverse momentum and one high-momentum, large-radius jet. Large-radius jets are required to have a mass consistent with either a W or Z boson. Events are categorized based on the presence of large-radius jets passing high-purity and low-purity substructure requirements. Events are also categorized based on the presence or absence of high-momentum jets in the forward region of the detector. Forward jets distinguish weak vector boson fusion (VBF) from other production mechanisms. Contributions from the dominant SM backgrounds are estimated from data control regions using an extrapolation method. No deviation between SM expectation and data is found, and 95% confidence level upper limits are set on the product of the production cross section and branching fraction for several signal models. A lower observed (expected) limit of 3.0 (2.5) TeV is set on the mass of gluon-gluon fusion produced radions. The observed (expected) mass exclusion limit for Drell-Yan produced W' bosons is found to be 4.0 (3.7) TeV. The observed (expected) mass exclusion limit for gluon-gluon fusion produced gravitons is found to be 1.2 (1.1) TeV. At 95% confidence level, upper observed (expected) limits on the product of the VBF production cross section and $\mathrm{X}\to \mathrm{Z}+\mathrm{W}/\mathrm{Z}$ branching fraction range between 0.2 and 20 (0.3 and 30) fb. |
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Compact Muon Solenoid LHC, CERN |