CMSPASHIG17013  
Search for new resonances in the diphoton final state in the mass range between 70 and 110 GeV in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=$ 8 and 13 TeV  
CMS Collaboration  
September 2017  
Abstract: The results of a search for a new resonance decaying into two photons are presented for a diphoton invariant mass in the range between 70 and 110 GeV. The analysis uses the entire dataset collected by the CMS experiment in protonproton collisions during the 2012 and 2016 LHC running periods. The data samples correspond to integrated luminosities of 19.7 fb$^{1}$ at $\sqrt{s}= $ 8 TeV and 35.9 fb$^{1}$ at $\sqrt{s}= $ 13 TeV. The expected and observed 95% confidence level upper limits on the product of the cross section times branching ratio into two photons are presented. No significant excess with respect to the expected limits is observed. The observed upper limit for the 2012 (2016) dataset ranges from approximately 133 (161) fb at the mass hypothesis of 91.1 (89.9) GeV to 31 (26) fb at a mass of 102.8 (103.0) GeV. The statistical combination of the results from the analysis of the two datasets in the mass range between 80 and 110 GeV yields a minimum (maximum) observed upper limit on the production cross section times branching ratio normalized to the Standard Modellike expectation of approximately 0.17 (1.15) corresponding to a mass hypothesis of 103.0 (90.0) GeV.  
Links:
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These preliminary results are superseded in this paper, PLB 793 (2019) 320. The superseded preliminary plots can be found here. 
Figures & Tables  Summary  Additional Figures  References  CMS Publications 

Figures  
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Figure 1:
Full parameterized signal shape integrated over all event classes, in simulated signal events with $ {m_{\mathrm {H}}} = $ 90 GeV at $\sqrt {s} = $ 8 TeV (left) and at $\sqrt {s} = $ 13 TeV (right). The open points are the weighted MC events and the blue lines are the corresponding parametric models. Also shown are the effective $\sigma $ ($\sigma _{\text {eff}}$) values and the corresponding full width at halfmaximum (FWHM), indicated by the position of the arrows on each distribution. 
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Figure 1a:
Full parameterized signal shape integrated over all event classes, in simulated signal events with $ {m_{\mathrm {H}}} = $ 90 GeV at $\sqrt {s} = $ 8 TeV. The open points are the weighted MC events and the blue lines are the corresponding parametric models. Also shown are the effective $\sigma $ ($\sigma _{\text {eff}}$) values and the corresponding full width at halfmaximum (FWHM), indicated by the position of the arrows on each distribution. 
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Figure 1b:
Full parameterized signal shape integrated over all event classes, in simulated signal events with $ {m_{\mathrm {H}}} = $ 90 GeV at $\sqrt {s} = $ 13 TeV. The open points are the weighted MC events and the blue lines are the corresponding parametric models. Also shown are the effective $\sigma $ ($\sigma _{\text {eff}}$) values and the corresponding full width at halfmaximum (FWHM), indicated by the position of the arrows on each distribution. 
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Figure 2:
Background model fits using the chosen 'bestfit' parametrization (PDF) to data in the four event classes at $\sqrt {s} = $ 8 TeV. The deviations from monotonically decreasing behavior in the neighborhood of $m_{\gamma \gamma} = $ 90 GeV are consistent with surviving doublefake events from the $\mathrm{Z} \to {\mathrm{e^{+}} \mathrm{e^{}}} $ DrellYan process. The corresponding signal model for each class for $ {m_{\mathrm {H}}} = $ 90 GeV is also shown. The error bands, shown for illustration purposes only, reflect the uncertainty on the background model normalization associated with the statistical uncertainties of the fits. The difference between the data and the bestfit PDF is shown below. 
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Figure 2a:
Background model fits using the chosen 'bestfit' parametrization (PDF) to data in class 0 at $\sqrt {s} = $ 8 TeV. The deviations from monotonically decreasing behavior in the neighborhood of $m_{\gamma \gamma} = $ 90 GeV are consistent with surviving doublefake events from the $\mathrm{Z} \to {\mathrm{e^{+}} \mathrm{e^{}}} $ DrellYan process. The corresponding signal model for $ {m_{\mathrm {H}}} = $ 90 GeV is also shown. The error bands, shown for illustration purposes only, reflect the uncertainty on the background model normalization associated with the statistical uncertainties of the fits. The difference between the data and the bestfit PDF is shown below. 
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Figure 2b:
Background model fits using the chosen 'bestfit' parametrization (PDF) to data in class 1 at $\sqrt {s} = $ 8 TeV. The deviations from monotonically decreasing behavior in the neighborhood of $m_{\gamma \gamma} = $ 90 GeV are consistent with surviving doublefake events from the $\mathrm{Z} \to {\mathrm{e^{+}} \mathrm{e^{}}} $ DrellYan process. The corresponding signal model for $ {m_{\mathrm {H}}} = $ 90 GeV is also shown. The error bands, shown for illustration purposes only, reflect the uncertainty on the background model normalization associated with the statistical uncertainties of the fits. The difference between the data and the bestfit PDF is shown below. 
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Figure 2c:
Background model fits using the chosen 'bestfit' parametrization (PDF) to data in class 2 at $\sqrt {s} = $ 8 TeV. The deviations from monotonically decreasing behavior in the neighborhood of $m_{\gamma \gamma} = $ 90 GeV are consistent with surviving doublefake events from the $\mathrm{Z} \to {\mathrm{e^{+}} \mathrm{e^{}}} $ DrellYan process. The corresponding signal model for $ {m_{\mathrm {H}}} = $ 90 GeV is also shown. The error bands, shown for illustration purposes only, reflect the uncertainty on the background model normalization associated with the statistical uncertainties of the fits. The difference between the data and the bestfit PDF is shown below. 
png pdf 
Figure 2d:
Background model fits using the chosen 'bestfit' parametrization (PDF) to data in class 3 at $\sqrt {s} = $ 8 TeV. The deviations from monotonically decreasing behavior in the neighborhood of $m_{\gamma \gamma} = $ 90 GeV are consistent with surviving doublefake events from the $\mathrm{Z} \to {\mathrm{e^{+}} \mathrm{e^{}}} $ DrellYan process. The corresponding signal model for $ {m_{\mathrm {H}}} = $ 90 GeV is also shown. The error bands, shown for illustration purposes only, reflect the uncertainty on the background model normalization associated with the statistical uncertainties of the fits. The difference between the data and the bestfit PDF is shown below. 
png pdf 
Figure 3:
Background model fits using the chosen 'bestfit' parametrization (PDF) to data in the three event classes at $\sqrt {s} = $ 13 TeV. The deviations from monotonically decreasing behavior in the neighborhood of $m_{\gamma \gamma} = $ 90 GeV are consistent with surviving doublefake events from the $\mathrm{Z} \to {\mathrm{e^{+}} \mathrm{e^{}}} $ DrellYan process. The corresponding signal model for each class for $ {m_{\mathrm {H}}} = $ 90 GeV is also shown. The error bands, shown for illustration purposes only, reflect the uncertainty on the background model normalization associated with the statistical uncertainties of the fits. The difference between the data and the bestfit PDF is shown below. 
png pdf 
Figure 3a:
Background model fits using the chosen 'bestfit' parametrization (PDF) to data in class 0 at $\sqrt {s} = $ 13 TeV. The deviations from monotonically decreasing behavior in the neighborhood of $m_{\gamma \gamma} = $ 90 GeV are consistent with surviving doublefake events from the $\mathrm{Z} \to {\mathrm{e^{+}} \mathrm{e^{}}} $ DrellYan process. The corresponding signal model for $ {m_{\mathrm {H}}} = $ 90 GeV is also shown. The error bands, shown for illustration purposes only, reflect the uncertainty on the background model normalization associated with the statistical uncertainties of the fits. The difference between the data and the bestfit PDF is shown below. 
png pdf 
Figure 3b:
Background model fits using the chosen 'bestfit' parametrization (PDF) to data in class 1 at $\sqrt {s} = $ 13 TeV. The deviations from monotonically decreasing behavior in the neighborhood of $m_{\gamma \gamma} = $ 90 GeV are consistent with surviving doublefake events from the $\mathrm{Z} \to {\mathrm{e^{+}} \mathrm{e^{}}} $ DrellYan process. The corresponding signal model for $ {m_{\mathrm {H}}} = $ 90 GeV is also shown. The error bands, shown for illustration purposes only, reflect the uncertainty on the background model normalization associated with the statistical uncertainties of the fits. The difference between the data and the bestfit PDF is shown below. 
png pdf 
Figure 3c:
Background model fits using the chosen 'bestfit' parametrization (PDF) to data in class 2 at $\sqrt {s} = $ 13 TeV. The deviations from monotonically decreasing behavior in the neighborhood of $m_{\gamma \gamma} = $ 90 GeV are consistent with surviving doublefake events from the $\mathrm{Z} \to {\mathrm{e^{+}} \mathrm{e^{}}} $ DrellYan process. The corresponding signal model for $ {m_{\mathrm {H}}} = $ 90 GeV is also shown. The error bands, shown for illustration purposes only, reflect the uncertainty on the background model normalization associated with the statistical uncertainties of the fits. The difference between the data and the bestfit PDF is shown below. 
png pdf 
Figure 4:
Expected and observed exclusion limits (95% CL) on the production cross section times branching ratio into two photons for an SMlike second Higgs boson in the asymptotic CLs approximation, from the analysis of the 8 TeV (left) and 13 TeV (right) datasets. The inner (green) bands and the outer (yellow) bands indicate the regions containing 68 and 95%, respectively, of the distribution of limits expected under the backgroundonly hypothesis. The theoretical prediction for the crosssection times branching ratio into two photons of an SMlike Higgs boson, $\sigma _{\text {SM}}\times \text {BR}$ is shown as a blue line, with the redhatched band indicating its uncertainty [47,48]. 
png pdf 
Figure 4a:
Expected and observed exclusion limits (95% CL) on the production cross section times branching ratio into two photons for an SMlike second Higgs boson in the asymptotic CLs approximation, from the analysis of the 8 TeV dataset. The inner (green) bands and the outer (yellow) bands indicate the regions containing 68 and 95%, respectively, of the distribution of limits expected under the backgroundonly hypothesis. The theoretical prediction for the crosssection times branching ratio into two photons of an SMlike Higgs boson, $\sigma _{\text {SM}}\times \text {BR}$ is shown as a blue line, with the redhatched band indicating its uncertainty [47,48]. 
png pdf 
Figure 4b:
Expected and observed exclusion limits (95% CL) on the production cross section times branching ratio into two photons for an SMlike second Higgs boson in the asymptotic CLs approximation, from the analysis of the 13 TeV dataset. The inner (green) bands and the outer (yellow) bands indicate the regions containing 68 and 95%, respectively, of the distribution of limits expected under the backgroundonly hypothesis. The theoretical prediction for the crosssection times branching ratio into two photons of an SMlike Higgs boson, $\sigma _{\text {SM}}\times \text {BR}$ is shown as a blue line, with the redhatched band indicating its uncertainty [47,48]. 
png pdf 
Figure 5:
Expected and observed exclusion limits (95% CL) on the production cross section times branching ratio into two photons for a second Higgs boson in the asymptotic CLs approximation for the ggH plus $\text {t}\overline {\text {t}}$H (left) and VBF plus VH (right) processes, from the analysis of the 8 TeV (top) and 13 TeV (bottom) datasets. The inner (green) bands and the outer (yellow) bands indicate the regions containing 68 and 95%, respectively, of the distribution of limits expected under the backgroundonly hypothesis. 
png pdf 
Figure 5a:
Expected and observed exclusion limits (95% CL) on the production cross section times branching ratio into two photons for a second Higgs boson in the asymptotic CLs approximation for the ggH plus $\text {t}\overline {\text {t}}$H processes, from the analysis of the 8 TeV dataset. The inner (green) bands and the outer (yellow) bands indicate the regions containing 68 and 95%, respectively, of the distribution of limits expected under the backgroundonly hypothesis. 
png pdf 
Figure 5b:
Expected and observed exclusion limits (95% CL) on the production cross section times branching ratio into two photons for a second Higgs boson in the asymptotic CLs approximation for the VBF plus VH processes, from the analysis of the 8 TeV dataset. The inner (green) bands and the outer (yellow) bands indicate the regions containing 68 and 95%, respectively, of the distribution of limits expected under the backgroundonly hypothesis. 
png pdf 
Figure 5c:
Expected and observed exclusion limits (95% CL) on the production cross section times branching ratio into two photons for a second Higgs boson in the asymptotic CLs approximation for the ggH plus $\text {t}\overline {\text {t}}$H processes, from the analysis of the 13 TeV dataset. The inner (green) bands and the outer (yellow) bands indicate the regions containing 68 and 95%, respectively, of the distribution of limits expected under the backgroundonly hypothesis. 
png pdf 
Figure 5d:
Expected and observed exclusion limits (95% CL) on the production cross section times branching ratio into two photons for a second Higgs boson in the asymptotic CLs approximation for the VBF plus VH processes, from the analysis of the 13 TeV dataset. The inner (green) bands and the outer (yellow) bands indicate the regions containing 68 and 95%, respectively, of the distribution of limits expected under the backgroundonly hypothesis. 
png pdf 
Figure 6:
Expected and observed exclusion limits (95% CL) on the production cross section times branching ratio into two photons for a second Higgs boson relative to the expected SMlike expectation, in the asymptotic CLs approximation, from the analysis of the 8 and 13 TeV datasets. The inner (green) band and the outer (yellow) band indicate the regions containing 68 and 95%, respectively, of the distribution of limits expected under the backgroundonly hypothesis. 
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Figure 7:
Observed local pvalues as a function of $ {m_{\mathrm {H}}} $ for the 8 and 13 TeV datasets and their combination (solid curves) plotted together with the relevant expectations for an SMlike second Higgs boson (dotted curves). 
Tables  
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Table 1:
Values of $\mu $, $\sigma $ and their uncertainties from statistical errors on the doublefake fits, and the total uncertainty in each event class used in the final statistical analysis of the 8 TeV dataset. 
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Table 2:
Values of $\mu $, $\sigma $ and their uncertainties from statistical errors on the doublefake fits, and the total uncertainty in each event class used in the final statistical analysis of the 13 TeV dataset. 
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Table 3:
The expected number of signal events per event class and the corresponding percentage breakdown per production process, for the 8 TeV dataset. The values of $\sigma _{\text {eff}}$ and $\sigma _{\text {HM}}$ are also shown, as are the expected number of background events per GeV in a $\sigma _{\text {eff}}$ window centered on $ {m_{\mathrm {H}}} = $ 90 GeV. 
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Table 4:
The expected number of signal events per event class and the corresponding percentage breakdown per production process, for the 13 TeV dataset. The values of $\sigma _{\text {eff}}$ and $\sigma _{\text {HM}}$ are also shown, as are the expected number of background events per GeV in a $\sigma _{\text {eff}}$ window centered on $ {m_{\mathrm {H}}} = $ 90 GeV. 
Summary 
A search for new lowmass resonances decaying to two photons has been presented. It is based upon data samples corresponding to integrated luminosities of 19.7 fb$^{1}$ and 35.9 fb$^{1}$ collected respectively at centerofmass energies of 8 TeV in 2012 and 13 TeV in 2016. The search is performed in a mass range between 70 and 110 GeV. The expected and observed 95% confidence level upper limits on the product of the cross section times branching ratio into two photons for a second Higgs boson as well as the expected and observed local pvalues are presented. No significant excess with respect to the expected limits is observed. For the 8 TeV dataset, the minimum(maximum) observed upper limit on the production cross section times branching ratio is approximately 31(133) fb corresponding to a mass hypothesis of 102.8(91.1) GeV. For the 13 TeV dataset, the minimum(maximum) observed upper limits are 26(161) fb corresponding to a mass hypothesis of 103.0(89.9) GeV. The statistical combination of the results from the analysis of the two datasets in the mass range between 80 and 110 GeV yields a minimum(maximum) observed upper limit on the production cross section times branching ratio normalized to the SMlike expectation of approximately 0.17 (1.15) corresponding to a mass hypothesis of 103.0(90.0) GeV. In the case of the 8 TeV dataset, one excess with approximately 2.0$\sigma$ local significance is observed for an hypothesis mass of 97.6 GeV. For the 13 TeV dataset, one excess with approximately 2.9$\sigma$ local (1.47$\sigma$ global) significance is observed for an hypothesis mass of 95.3 GeV. When combined statistically, these yield an excess with approximately 2.8$\sigma$ local (1.3$\sigma$ global) significance for the same hypothesis mass as for the 13 TeV dataset alone, 95.3 GeV. More data are required to ascertain the origin of this excess. These are the first LHC results to appear for a search for new resonances in the diphoton final state in this mass range, which include analysis of data at the centerofmass energy of 13 TeV. 
Additional Figures  
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Additional Figure 1:
Efficiency for the seeded leg measured on data for $\mathrm{ Z\to ee }$ events using the tagandprobe method, for the 'OR' highlevel trigger (HLT) path used for the analysis of the 13 TeV dataset, with respect to offline probe electron $p_{\mathrm{T}}$, for ECAL barrel photons with $ {R_\mathrm {9}} > $ 0.85 (black) and 0.5 $ < {R_\mathrm {9}} < $ 0.85 (red). Variable bin widths have been used. 
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Additional Figure 2:
Efficiency for the seeded leg measured on data for $\mathrm{ Z\to ee }$ events using the tagandprobe method, for the 'AND' highlevel trigger (HLT) path used for the analysis of the 13 TeV dataset, with respect to offline probe electron $p_{\mathrm{T}}$, for ECAL barrel photons with $ {R_\mathrm {9}} > $ 0.85 (black) and endcap photons with $ {R_\mathrm {9}} > $ 0.9 (magenta). Variable bin widths have been used. 
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Additional Figure 3:
Efficiency for the unseeded leg measured on data for the 'OR' highlevel trigger (HLT) path used for the analysis of the 13 TeV dataset, with respect to offline probe electron $p_{\mathrm{T}}$, for ECAL barrel photons with $ {R_\mathrm {9}} > $ 0.85 (black) and 0.5 $ < {R_\mathrm {9}} < $ 0.85 (red). Variable bin widths have been used. 
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Additional Figure 4:
Efficiency for the unseeded leg measured on data for the 'AND' highlevel trigger (HLT) path used for the analysis of the 13 TeV dataset, with respect to offline probe electron $p_{\mathrm{T}}$, for ECAL barrel photons with $ {R_\mathrm {9}} > $ 0.85 (black) and endcap photons with $ {R_\mathrm {9}} > $ 0.9 (magenta). Variable bin widths have been used. 
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Additional Figure 5:
Signal efficiency$\times $acceptance for the analysis of the 13 TeV dataset, as a function of mass hypothesis. 
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Additional Figure 6:
Doublesided Crystal Ball function fit to the dielectron invariant mass distribution from DrellYan 'doublefake' events for class 0, used for the analysis of the 13 TeV dataset. 
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Additional Figure 7:
Doublesided Crystal Ball function fit to the dielectron invariant mass distribution from DrellYan 'doublefake' events for class 1, used for the analysis of the 13 TeV dataset. 
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Additional Figure 8:
Doublesided Crystal Ball function fit to the dielectron invariant mass distribution from DrellYan 'doublefake' events for class 2, used for the analysis of the 13 TeV dataset. 
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Additional Figure 9:
The set of functions chosen to fit the background using the discrete profiling method for the event class 0 in the analysis of the 13 TeV dataset. Four families of functions summed with the DCB function are considered: sums of exponentials, polynomials in the Bernstein basis, Laurent series and sums of power laws. 
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Additional Figure 10:
The set of functions chosen to fit the background using the discrete profiling method for the event class 1 in the analysis of the 13 TeV dataset. Four families of functions summed with the DCB function are considered: sums of exponentials, polynomials in the Bernstein basis, Laurent series and sums of power laws. 
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Additional Figure 11:
The set of functions chosen to fit the background using the discrete profiling method for the event class 2 in the analysis of the 13 TeV dataset. Four families of functions summed with the DCB function are considered: sums of exponentials, polynomials in the Bernstein basis, Laurent series and sums of power laws. 
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Additional Figure 12:
Events in the three classes of the 13 TeV dataset, binned as a function of $ {m_{\gamma \gamma}} $, together with the result of a fit of the signalplusbackground model. The 1$\sigma $ and 2$\sigma $ uncertainty bands shown for the background component of the fit include the uncertainty due to the choice of fit function and the uncertainty in the fitted parameters. The distribution of the residual data after subtracting the fitted background component is shown below. 
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Additional Figure 13:
Events in the three classes of the 13 TeV dataset, binned as a function of $ {m_{\gamma \gamma}} $, where each event is weighted by the ratio S/(S+B) for its event class, together with the result of a fit of the signalplusbackground model. The 1$\sigma $ and 2$\sigma $ uncertainty bands shown for the background component of the fit include the uncertainty due to the choice of fit function and the uncertainty in the fitted parameters. The distribution of the residual weighted data after subtracting the fitted background component is shown below. 
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Additional Figure 14:
Values of the signal strength $\hat{\mu}$ measured individually for the seven event classes in the combination of the 8 and 13 TeV datasets, and the overall combined value, with $m_H$ fixed to that of the largest local pvalue excess. The horizontal bars indicate $ \pm 1 \sigma $ uncertainties in the values, and the vertical line and band indicate the value of the combined $\hat{\mu}$ in the fit to the data and its uncertainty. The $\chi ^2$ probability of the values for the seven classes being compatible with the overall bestfit signal strength is 41%. 
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