CMS-SMP-19-001 ; CERN-EP-2020-145 | ||
Measurements of pp $\to$ ZZ production cross sections and constraints on anomalous triple gauge couplings at $\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV | ||
CMS Collaboration | ||
2 September 2020 | ||
EPJC 81 (2021) 200 | ||
Abstract: The production of Z boson pairs in proton-proton (pp) collisions, $\mathrm{pp} \to (\mathrm{Z}/\gamma^*)(\mathrm{Z}/\gamma^*) \to 2\ell 2\ell'$, where $\ell,\ell'$ = e or $\mu$, is studied at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 137 fb$^{-1}$, collected during 2016-2018. The ZZ production cross section, $\sigma_{\text{tot}} (\mathrm{pp} \to \mathrm{ZZ}) = $ 17.2 $\pm$ 0.3 (stat) $\pm$ 0.5 (syst) $\pm$ 0.4 (theo) $\pm$ 0.3 (lumi) pb, measured for events with two pairs of opposite-sign, same-flavor leptons produced in the mass region 60 $ < m_{\ell^+\ell^-} < $ 120 GeV is consistent with standard model predictions. Differential cross sections are also measured and agree with theoretical predictions. The invariant mass distribution of the four-lepton system is used to set limits on anomalous ZZZ and ZZ$\gamma$ couplings. | ||
Links: e-print arXiv:2009.01186 [hep-ex] (PDF) ; CDS record ; inSPIRE record ; HepData record ; CADI line (restricted) ; |
Figures | |
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Figure 1:
Distributions of (left) transverse momentum and (right) pseudorapidity for individual leptons. Points represent the data with error bars showing the statistical uncertainties, histograms the expected SM predictions and reducible background estimated from data. |
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Figure 1-a:
Distribution of transverse momentum for individual leptons. Points represent the data with error bars showing the statistical uncertainties, histograms the expected SM predictions and reducible background estimated from data. |
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Figure 1-b:
Distribution of pseudorapidity for individual leptons. Points represent the data with error bars showing the statistical uncertainties, histograms the expected SM predictions and reducible background estimated from data. |
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Figure 2:
Distributions of (upper left) $m_{{\mathrm{Z} \mathrm{Z}}}$ for ZZ events with 60 $ < m_{\mathrm{Z} _1, \mathrm{Z} _2} < $ 120 GeV; (upper right) mass of selected Z boson candidates; (lower left) transverse momentum of the ZZ system; (lower right) transverse momentum of individual Z boson candidates. Points represent the data with error bars showing the statistical uncertainties, histograms the expected SM predictions and reducible background estimated from data. |
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Figure 2-a:
Distribution of $m_{{\mathrm{Z} \mathrm{Z}}}$ for ZZ events with 60 $ < m_{\mathrm{Z} _1, \mathrm{Z} _2} < $ 120 GeV. Points represent the data with error bars showing the statistical uncertainties, histograms the expected SM predictions and reducible background estimated from data. |
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Figure 2-b:
Distribution of the mass of selected Z boson candidates. Points represent the data with error bars showing the statistical uncertainties, histograms the expected SM predictions and reducible background estimated from data. |
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Figure 2-c:
Distribution of the transverse momentum of the ZZ system. Points represent the data with error bars showing the statistical uncertainties, histograms the expected SM predictions and reducible background estimated from data. |
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Figure 2-d:
Distribution of the transverse momentum of individual Z boson candidates. Points represent the data with error bars showing the statistical uncertainties, histograms the expected SM predictions and reducible background estimated from data. |
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Figure 3:
The total ZZ cross section as a function of the proton-proton center-of-mass energy. Results from the CMS [4,5] and ATLAS [9,10,14] experiments are compared to predictions from Matrix at NNLO in QCD and NLO in EW, and MCFM at NLO in QCD. The MCFM prediction also includes gluon-gluon initiated production at LO in QCD. The predictions use NNPDF31_nnlo_as_0118_luxqed and NNPDF3.0 PDF sets, respectively, and fixed factorization and renormalization scales $\mu _\mathrm {F} = \mu _\mathrm {R} = m_{\mathrm{Z}}$. Details of the calculations and uncertainties are given in the text. The ATLAS measurements were performed with a Z boson mass window of 66-116 GeV, instead of 60-120 GeV used by CMS, and are corrected for the resulting 1.6% difference in acceptance. Measurements at the same center-of-mass energy are shifted slightly along the horizontal axis for clarity. |
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Figure 4:
Differential cross sections normalized to the fiducial cross section for the combined 4e, 2e2$\mu $, and 4$\mu $ decay channels as a function of $ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} $ for (left) all leptons, (right) all Z bosons in the event. The points represent the unfolded data with error bars showing the statistical uncertainties, the shaded histogram the POWHEG+MCFM ZZ predictions, and the dashed curves correspond to the results of the Matrix and MadGraph 5_aMC@NLO+MCFM calculations. The three lower panels represent the ratio of the measured cross section to the expected distributions from Matrix, POWHEG+MCFM and MadGraph 5_aMC@NLO+MCFM. The shaded areas in all the panels represent the full uncertainties calculated as the quadratic sum of the statistical and systematic uncertainties, whereas the crosses represent only the statistical uncertainties. |
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Figure 4-a:
Differential cross sections normalized to the fiducial cross section for the combined 4e, 2e2$\mu $, and 4$\mu $ decay channels as a function of $ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} $ for all leptons in the event. The points represent the unfolded data with error bars showing the statistical uncertainties, the shaded histogram the POWHEG+MCFM ZZ predictions, and the dashed curves correspond to the results of the Matrix and MadGraph 5_aMC@NLO+MCFM calculations. The three lower panels represent the ratio of the measured cross section to the expected distributions from Matrix, POWHEG+MCFM and MadGraph 5_aMC@NLO+MCFM. The shaded areas in all the panels represent the full uncertainties calculated as the quadratic sum of the statistical and systematic uncertainties, whereas the crosses represent only the statistical uncertainties. |
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Figure 4-b:
Differential cross sections normalized to the fiducial cross section for the combined 4e, 2e2$\mu $, and 4$\mu $ decay channels as a function of $ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} $ for all Z bosons in the event. The points represent the unfolded data with error bars showing the statistical uncertainties, the shaded histogram the POWHEG+MCFM ZZ predictions, and the dashed curves correspond to the results of the Matrix and MadGraph 5_aMC@NLO+MCFM calculations. The three lower panels represent the ratio of the measured cross section to the expected distributions from Matrix, POWHEG+MCFM and MadGraph 5_aMC@NLO+MCFM. The shaded areas in all the panels represent the full uncertainties calculated as the quadratic sum of the statistical and systematic uncertainties, whereas the crosses represent only the statistical uncertainties. |
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Figure 5:
Differential cross sections normalized to the fiducial cross section for the combined 4e, 2e2$\mu $, and 4$\mu $ decay channels as a function of (left) $ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} $ of the ZZ system, (right) the invariant mass of the ZZ system. The points represent the unfolded data with error bars showing the statistical uncertainties, shaded histogram the POWHEG+MCFM ZZ predictions, and the dashed curves correspond to the results of the Matrix and MadGraph 5_aMC@NLO+MCFM calculations. The three lower panels represent the ratio of the measured cross section to the expected distributions from Matrix, POWHEG+MCFM and MadGraph 5_aMC@NLO+MCFM. The shaded areas in all the panels represent the full uncertainties calculated as the quadratic sum of the statistical and systematic uncertainties, whereas the crosses represent only the statistical uncertainties. |
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Figure 5-a:
Differential cross sections normalized to the fiducial cross section for the combined 4e, 2e2$\mu $, and 4$\mu $ decay channels as a function of $ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} $ of the ZZ system. The points represent the unfolded data with error bars showing the statistical uncertainties, shaded histogram the POWHEG+MCFM ZZ predictions, and the dashed curves correspond to the results of the Matrix and MadGraph 5_aMC@NLO+MCFM calculations. The three lower panels represent the ratio of the measured cross section to the expected distributions from Matrix, POWHEG+MCFM and MadGraph 5_aMC@NLO+MCFM. The shaded areas in all the panels represent the full uncertainties calculated as the quadratic sum of the statistical and systematic uncertainties, whereas the crosses represent only the statistical uncertainties. |
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Figure 5-b:
Differential cross sections normalized to the fiducial cross section for the combined 4e, 2e2$\mu $, and 4$\mu $ decay channels as a function of the invariant mass of the ZZ system. The points represent the unfolded data with error bars showing the statistical uncertainties, shaded histogram the POWHEG+MCFM ZZ predictions, and the dashed curves correspond to the results of the Matrix and MadGraph 5_aMC@NLO+MCFM calculations. The three lower panels represent the ratio of the measured cross section to the expected distributions from Matrix, POWHEG+MCFM and MadGraph 5_aMC@NLO+MCFM. The shaded areas in all the panels represent the full uncertainties calculated as the quadratic sum of the statistical and systematic uncertainties, whereas the crosses represent only the statistical uncertainties. |
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Figure 6:
Differential cross sections normalized to the fiducial cross section for the combined 4e, 2e2$\mu $, and 4$\mu $ decay channels as a function of the azimuthal and $\Delta R$ separation of the two Z bosons. The points represent the unfolded data with error bars showing the statistical uncertainties, the shaded histogram the POWHEG+MCFM ZZ predictions, and the dashed curves correspond to the results of the Matrix and MadGraph 5_aMC@NLO+MCFM calculations. The three lower panels represent the ratio of the measured cross section to the expected distributions from Matrix, POWHEG+MCFM and MadGraph 5_aMC@NLO+MCFM. The shaded areas in all the panels represent the full uncertainties calculated as the quadratic sum of the statistical and systematic uncertainties, whereas the crosses represent only the statistical uncertainties. |
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Figure 6-a:
Differential cross sections normalized to the fiducial cross section for the combined 4e, 2e2$\mu $, and 4$\mu $ decay channels as a function of the azimuthal separation of the two Z bosons. The points represent the unfolded data with error bars showing the statistical uncertainties, the shaded histogram the POWHEG+MCFM ZZ predictions, and the dashed curves correspond to the results of the Matrix and MadGraph 5_aMC@NLO+MCFM calculations. The three lower panels represent the ratio of the measured cross section to the expected distributions from Matrix, POWHEG+MCFM and MadGraph 5_aMC@NLO+MCFM. The shaded areas in all the panels represent the full uncertainties calculated as the quadratic sum of the statistical and systematic uncertainties, whereas the crosses represent only the statistical uncertainties. |
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Figure 6-b:
Differential cross sections normalized to the fiducial cross section for the combined 4e, 2e2$\mu $, and 4$\mu $ decay channels as a function of the $\Delta R$ separation of the two Z bosons. The points represent the unfolded data with error bars showing the statistical uncertainties, the shaded histogram the POWHEG+MCFM ZZ predictions, and the dashed curves correspond to the results of the Matrix and MadGraph 5_aMC@NLO+MCFM calculations. The three lower panels represent the ratio of the measured cross section to the expected distributions from Matrix, POWHEG+MCFM and MadGraph 5_aMC@NLO+MCFM. The shaded areas in all the panels represent the full uncertainties calculated as the quadratic sum of the statistical and systematic uncertainties, whereas the crosses represent only the statistical uncertainties. |
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Figure 7:
Distribution of the reconstructed ZZ mass for the combined 4e, 2e2$\mu $, and 4$\mu $ channels. Points represent the data with error bars showing the statistical uncertainties, the shaded histograms represent the SM prediction including signal and irreducible background from simulation, and the reducible background estimate from data. Dashed histogram represents an example of the aTGC signal. The last bin includes contribution from all events with mass above 1300 GeV. |
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Figure 8:
Two-dimensional observed (solid) and expected (dashed) contours exclusion limits at 95% CL, and at 68 and 95% CL, respectively, on the ZZZ and ZZ$ \gamma $ aTGCs. The plots show the exclusion contours in the $(f_{4(5)}^\mathrm{Z}, f_{4(5)}^\gamma)$ parameter planes. Dots show where the likelihoods reach their maximum. The coupling values outside the contours are excluded at the corresponding confidence level. The crosses in the middle represent the observed 1D limits. No form factor is used. |
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Figure 8-a:
Two-dimensional observed (solid) and expected (dashed) contours exclusion limits at 95% CL, and at 68 and 95% CL, respectively, on the ZZZ and ZZ$ \gamma $ aTGCs. The plots show the exclusion contours in the $(f_{4}^\mathrm{Z}, f_{4}^\gamma)$ parameter planes. Dots show where the likelihoods reach their maximum. The coupling values outside the contours are excluded at the corresponding confidence level. The crosses in the middle represent the observed 1D limits. No form factor is used. |
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Figure 8-b:
Two-dimensional observed (solid) and expected (dashed) contours exclusion limits at 95% CL, and at 68 and 95% CL, respectively, on the ZZZ and ZZ$ \gamma $ aTGCs. The plots show the exclusion contours in the $(f_{5}^\mathrm{Z}, f_{5}^\gamma)$ parameter planes. Dots show where the likelihoods reach their maximum. The coupling values outside the contours are excluded at the corresponding confidence level. The crosses in the middle represent the observed 1D limits. No form factor is used. |
Tables | |
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Table 1:
The contributions of each source of systematic uncertainty in the cross section measurements. The integrated luminosity uncertainty, and the PDF and scale uncertainties, are considered separately. All other uncertainties are added in quadrature into a single systematic uncertainty. Uncertainties that vary by decay channel are listed as ranges. |
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Table 2:
Observed and expected prefit yields of ZZ events, and estimated yields of background events, shown for each final state and combined. The statistical (first) and systematic (second) uncertainties are presented. |
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Table 3:
Measured fiducial cross section for each data sample and combined. The first uncertainty is statistical, the second is experimental systematic, and the third is associated with the integrated luminosity. |
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Table 4:
Measured total $\sigma ({\mathrm{p}} {\mathrm{p}} \to {\mathrm{Z} \mathrm{Z}})$ cross section for each data sample and combined. The first uncertainty is statistical, the second is experimental systematic, the third is theoretical systematic. The fourth uncertainty is associated with the integrated luminosity. |
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Table 5:
Expected and observed one-dimensional 95% CL limits on aTGC parameters. The corresponding constrains on EFT parameters are estimated using the transformation from Ref. [64]. |
Summary |
Four-lepton final states have been studied in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 137 fb$^{-1}$, collected during 2016-2018. The measured $\mathrm{pp} \to \mathrm{ZZ}$ total cross section is $\sigma_{\text{tot}} (\mathrm{pp} \to \mathrm{ZZ}) = $ 17.2 $\pm$ 0.3 (stat) $\pm$ 0.5 (syst) $\pm$ 0.4 (theo) $\pm$ 0.3 (lumi) pb, where the Z boson masses are in the range 60 $ < m_{\mathrm{Z}} < $ 120 GeV. The results agree with the SM predictions, discussed in Section 8. The differential cross sections also agree well with the SM predictions. Improved limits on anomalous ZZZ and ZZ$\gamma$ triple gauge couplings are established. These are the most stringent limits to date on anomalous ZZZ and ZZ$\gamma$ triple gauge couplings and they improve the previous strictest results from CMS by $\approx$30-40%. |
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Compact Muon Solenoid LHC, CERN |