CMS-EXO-17-023 ; CERN-EP-2018-093 | ||
Search for black holes and sphalerons in high-multiplicity final states in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV | ||
CMS Collaboration | ||
15 May 2018 | ||
JHEP 11 (2018) 042 | ||
Abstract:
A search in energetic, high-multiplicity final states for evidence of physics beyond the standard model, such as black holes, string balls, and electroweak sphalerons, is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb$^{-1}$ collected with the CMS experiment at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV in 2016. Standard model backgrounds, dominated by multijet production, are determined from control regions in data without any reliance on simulation. No evidence for excesses above the predicted background is observed. Model-independent 95% confidence level upper limits on the cross section of beyond the standard model signals in these final states are set and further interpreted in terms of limits on semiclassical black hole, string ball, and sphaleron production. In the context of models with large extra dimensions, semiclassical black holes with minimum masses as high as 10.1 TeV and string balls with masses as high as 9.5 TeV are excluded by this search. Results of the first dedicated search for electroweak sphalerons are presented. An upper limit of 0.021 is set on the fraction of all quark-quark interactions above the nominal threshold energy of 9 TeV resulting in the sphaleron transition. We dedicate this paper to the memory of Prof. Stephen William Hawking, on whose transformative ideas much of this work relies. | ||
Links: e-print arXiv:1805.06013 [hep-ex] (PDF) ; CDS record ; inSPIRE record ; CADI line (restricted) ; |
Figures | |
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Figure 1:
Observed final-state particle multiplicity $N$ distributions for $ {{N_\mathrm {CS}}} =$ $\pm$1 sphaleron transitions resulting in 10, 12, and 14 parton-level final-state multiplicities. The relative numbers of events in the histograms are proportional to the relative probabilities of these three parton-level configurations. |
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Figure 2:
The ${{S_\mathrm {T}}}$ distribution in data for inclusive multiplicities of (left) $N \ge $ 3 and (right) $N \ge $ 6, compared with the normalized background prediction from simulation, illustrating the relative contributions of major backgrounds. |
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Figure 2-a:
The ${{S_\mathrm {T}}}$ distribution in data for inclusive multiplicities of $N \ge $ 3, compared with the normalized background prediction from simulation, illustrating the relative contributions of major backgrounds. |
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Figure 2-b:
The ${{S_\mathrm {T}}}$ distribution in data for inclusive multiplicities of $N \ge $ 6, compared with the normalized background prediction from simulation, illustrating the relative contributions of major backgrounds. |
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Figure 3:
The results of the fit to data with $N = $ 3 (left) and $N= $ 4 (right), after discarding the functions that fail to monotonically decrease up to $ {{S_\mathrm {T}}} = $ 13 TeV. The description of the best fit function and the envelope are given in the main text. |
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Figure 3-a:
The results of the fit to data with $N = $ 3, after discarding the functions that fail to monotonically decrease up to $ {{S_\mathrm {T}}} = $ 13 TeV. The description of the best fit function and the envelope are given in the main text. |
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Figure 3-b:
The results of the fit to data with $N= $ 4, after discarding the functions that fail to monotonically decrease up to $ {{S_\mathrm {T}}} = $ 13 TeV. The description of the best fit function and the envelope are given in the main text. |
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Figure 4:
The background predictions after the normalization for inclusive multiplicities $N \ge $ 3, ..., 6 (left to right, upper to lower). The gray band shows the background shape uncertainty alone and the red lines also include the normalization uncertainty. The bottom panels show the difference between the data and the background prediction from the fit, divided by the overall uncertainty, which includes the statistical uncertainty of data as well as the shape and normalization uncertainties in the background prediction, added in quadrature. |
png pdf |
Figure 4-a:
The background prediction after the normalization for inclusive multiplicities $N \ge $ 3. The gray band shows the background shape uncertainty alone and the red lines also include the normalization uncertainty. The bottom panel shows the difference between the data and the background prediction from the fit, divided by the overall uncertainty, which includes the statistical uncertainty of data as well as the shape and normalization uncertainties in the background prediction, added in quadrature. |
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Figure 4-b:
The background prediction after the normalization for inclusive multiplicities $N \ge $ 4. The gray band shows the background shape uncertainty alone and the red lines also include the normalization uncertainty. The bottom panel shows the difference between the data and the background prediction from the fit, divided by the overall uncertainty, which includes the statistical uncertainty of data as well as the shape and normalization uncertainties in the background prediction, added in quadrature. |
png pdf |
Figure 4-c:
The background prediction after the normalization for inclusive multiplicities $N \ge $ 5. The gray band shows the background shape uncertainty alone and the red lines also include the normalization uncertainty. The bottom panel shows the difference between the data and the background prediction from the fit, divided by the overall uncertainty, which includes the statistical uncertainty of data as well as the shape and normalization uncertainties in the background prediction, added in quadrature. |
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Figure 4-d:
The background prediction after the normalization for inclusive multiplicities $N \ge $ 6. The gray band shows the background shape uncertainty alone and the red lines also include the normalization uncertainty. The bottom panel shows the difference between the data and the background prediction from the fit, divided by the overall uncertainty, which includes the statistical uncertainty of data as well as the shape and normalization uncertainties in the background prediction, added in quadrature. |
png pdf |
Figure 5:
The background predictions after normalization for inclusive multiplicities of $ N \ge $ 7, ..., 11 (left to right, upper to lower). The gray band shows the shape uncertainty and the red lines also include the normalization uncertainty. The bottom panels show the difference between the data and the background prediction from the fit, divided by the overall uncertainty, which includes the statistical uncertainty of data as well as the shape and normalization uncertainties in the background prediction, added in quadrature. The $N \ge $ 7 ($N \ge $ 8, ..., 11) distributions also show contributions from benchmark BH (sphaleron) signals added to the expected background. |
png pdf |
Figure 5-a:
The background predictions after normalization for inclusive multiplicities of $ N \ge $ 7. The gray band shows the shape uncertainty and the red lines also include the normalization uncertainty. The bottom panel shows the difference between the data and the background prediction from the fit, divided by the overall uncertainty, which includes the statistical uncertainty of data as well as the shape and normalization uncertainties in the background prediction, added in quadrature. The $N \ge $ 7 distribution also shows contributions from benchmark BH (sphaleron) signals added to the expected background. |
png pdf |
Figure 5-b:
The background predictions after normalization for inclusive multiplicities of $ N \ge $ 8. The gray band shows the shape uncertainty and the red lines also include the normalization uncertainty. The bottom panel shows the difference between the data and the background prediction from the fit, divided by the overall uncertainty, which includes the statistical uncertainty of data as well as the shape and normalization uncertainties in the background prediction, added in quadrature. The $N \ge $ 8 distribution also shows contributions from benchmark BH (sphaleron) signals added to the expected background. |
png pdf |
Figure 5-c:
The background predictions after normalization for inclusive multiplicities of $ N \ge $ 9. The gray band shows the shape uncertainty and the red lines also include the normalization uncertainty. The bottom panel shows the difference between the data and the background prediction from the fit, divided by the overall uncertainty, which includes the statistical uncertainty of data as well as the shape and normalization uncertainties in the background prediction, added in quadrature. The $N \ge $ 9 distribution also shows contributions from benchmark BH (sphaleron) signals added to the expected background. |
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Figure 5-d:
The background predictions after normalization for inclusive multiplicities of $ N \ge $ 10. The gray band shows the shape uncertainty and the red lines also include the normalization uncertainty. The bottom panel shows the difference between the data and the background prediction from the fit, divided by the overall uncertainty, which includes the statistical uncertainty of data as well as the shape and normalization uncertainties in the background prediction, added in quadrature. The $N \ge $ 10 distribution also shows contributions from benchmark BH (sphaleron) signals added to the expected background. |
png pdf |
Figure 5-e:
The background predictions after normalization for inclusive multiplicities of $ N \ge $ 11. The gray band shows the shape uncertainty and the red lines also include the normalization uncertainty. The bottom panel shows the difference between the data and the background prediction from the fit, divided by the overall uncertainty, which includes the statistical uncertainty of data as well as the shape and normalization uncertainties in the background prediction, added in quadrature. The $N \ge $ 11 distribution also shows contributions from benchmark BH (sphaleron) signals added to the expected background. |
png pdf |
Figure 6:
Model-independent upper limits on the cross section times acceptance for four sets of inclusive multiplicity thresholds, $N \ge $ 3, ..., 6 (left to right, upper to lower). Observed (expected) limits are shown as the black solid (dotted) lines. The green (yellow) band represents the $ \pm $1 ($ \pm $2 ) standard deviation uncertainty in the expected limit. |
png pdf |
Figure 6-a:
Model-independent upper limits on the cross section times acceptance for four sets of inclusive multiplicity thresholds, $N \ge $ 3. Observed (expected) limits are shown as the black solid (dotted) lines. The green (yellow) band represents the $ \pm $1 ($ \pm $2 ) standard deviation uncertainty in the expected limit. |
png pdf |
Figure 6-b:
Model-independent upper limits on the cross section times acceptance for four sets of inclusive multiplicity thresholds, $N \ge $ 4. Observed (expected) limits are shown as the black solid (dotted) lines. The green (yellow) band represents the $ \pm $1 ($ \pm $2 ) standard deviation uncertainty in the expected limit. |
png pdf |
Figure 6-c:
Model-independent upper limits on the cross section times acceptance for four sets of inclusive multiplicity thresholds, $N \ge $ 5. Observed (expected) limits are shown as the black solid (dotted) lines. The green (yellow) band represents the $ \pm $1 ($ \pm $2 ) standard deviation uncertainty in the expected limit. |
png pdf |
Figure 6-d:
Model-independent upper limits on the cross section times acceptance for four sets of inclusive multiplicity thresholds, $N \ge $ 6. Observed (expected) limits are shown as the black solid (dotted) lines. The green (yellow) band represents the $ \pm $1 ($ \pm $2 ) standard deviation uncertainty in the expected limit. |
png pdf |
Figure 7:
Model-independent upper limits on the cross section times acceptance for five sets of inclusive multiplicity thresholds, $N \ge $ 7, ..., 11 (left to right, upper to lower). Observed (expected) limits are shown as the black solid (dotted) lines. The green (yellow) band represents the $ \pm $1 ($ \pm $2) standard deviation uncertainty in the expected limit. |
png pdf |
Figure 7-a:
Model-independent upper limits on the cross section times acceptance for five sets of inclusive multiplicity thresholds, $N \ge $ 7. Observed (expected) limits are shown as the black solid (dotted) lines. The green (yellow) band represents the $ \pm $1 ($ \pm $2) standard deviation uncertainty in the expected limit. |
png pdf |
Figure 7-b:
Model-independent upper limits on the cross section times acceptance for five sets of inclusive multiplicity thresholds, $N \ge $ 8. Observed (expected) limits are shown as the black solid (dotted) lines. The green (yellow) band represents the $ \pm $1 ($ \pm $2) standard deviation uncertainty in the expected limit. |
png pdf |
Figure 7-c:
Model-independent upper limits on the cross section times acceptance for five sets of inclusive multiplicity thresholds, $N \ge $ 9. Observed (expected) limits are shown as the black solid (dotted) lines. The green (yellow) band represents the $ \pm $1 ($ \pm $2) standard deviation uncertainty in the expected limit. |
png pdf |
Figure 7-d:
Model-independent upper limits on the cross section times acceptance for five sets of inclusive multiplicity thresholds, $N \ge $ 10. Observed (expected) limits are shown as the black solid (dotted) lines. The green (yellow) band represents the $ \pm $1 ($ \pm $2) standard deviation uncertainty in the expected limit. |
png pdf |
Figure 7-e:
Model-independent upper limits on the cross section times acceptance for five sets of inclusive multiplicity thresholds, $N \ge $ 11. Observed (expected) limits are shown as the black solid (dotted) lines. The green (yellow) band represents the $ \pm $1 ($ \pm $2) standard deviation uncertainty in the expected limit. |
png pdf |
Figure 8:
Example of a model-specific limit on ${{M_\mathrm {BH}^\text {min}}}$ for a semiclassical nonrotating BH model (BlackMax point B1) with $ {{M_\mathrm {D}}} = $ 4 TeV $ {{n_\mathrm {ED}}} =$ 6, as a function of ${{M_\mathrm {BH}^\text {min}}}$. The 95% CL upper exclusion limit on the signal cross section for each ${{M_\mathrm {BH}^\text {min}}}$ value is obtained at the optimal $({{N^\mathrm {min}}}$,$ {{S_\mathrm {T}^\text {min}}})$ point, which ranges from (7,5.0 TeV) for $ {{M_\mathrm {BH}^\text {min}}} = $ 5 TeV to (3,7.6 TeV) for $ {{M_\mathrm {BH}^\text {min}}} = $ 11 TeV. Also shown with a dashed line are the theoretical cross sections corresponding to these optimal points. The green (yellow) band represents the $ \pm $1 ($ \pm $2) standard deviation uncertainty in the expected limit. |
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Figure 9:
The observed 95% CL lower limits on ${{M_\mathrm {BH}^\text {min}}}$ as a function of ${{M_\mathrm {D}}}$ at different $n$ for the models B1-B3 generated with BlackMax. |
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Figure 10:
The 95% observed CL lower limits on ${{M_\mathrm {BH}^\text {min}}}$ as a function of ${{M_\mathrm {D}}}$ at different $n$ for the models C1-C6 generated with Charybdis 2. |
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Figure 11:
The 95% CL lower limits on a string ball mass as a function of the string coupling ${{g_\mathrm {S}}}$ for a fixed value of the string scale $ {{M_\mathrm {S}}} = $ 3.6 TeV (left) and as a function of the string scale ${{M_\mathrm {S}}}$ for a fixed value of the string coupling $ {{g_\mathrm {S}}} = 0.2$ (right). The green (yellow) band represents the $ \pm $1 ($ \pm $2) standard deviation uncertainty in the expected limit. The area below the solid curve is excluded by this search. |
png pdf |
Figure 11-a:
The 95% CL lower limits on a string ball mass as a function of the string coupling ${{g_\mathrm {S}}}$ for a fixed value of the string scale $ {{M_\mathrm {S}}} = $ 3.6 TeV. The green (yellow) band represents the $ \pm $1 ($ \pm $2) standard deviation uncertainty in the expected limit. The area below the solid curve is excluded by this search. |
png pdf |
Figure 11-b:
The 95% CL lower limits on a string ball mass as a function of the string scale ${{M_\mathrm {S}}}$ for a fixed value of the string coupling $ {{g_\mathrm {S}}} = 0.2$. The green (yellow) band represents the $ \pm $1 ($ \pm $2) standard deviation uncertainty in the expected limit. The area below the solid curve is excluded by this search. |
png pdf |
Figure 12:
Observed (solid curve) and expected (dashed black curve) 95% CL upper limit on the pre-exponential factor PEF of the sphaleron production as a function of ${{E_\mathrm {sph}}}$. The green (yellow) band represents the $ \pm $1 ($ \pm $2) standard deviation uncertainty in the expected limit. The area above the solid curve is excluded by this search. |
Tables | |
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Table 1:
Generator settings used for BlackMax signal sample generation. |
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Table 2:
Generator settings used for Charybdis 2 signal sample generation. |
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Table 3:
The ${{S_\mathrm {T}}}$ invariance thresholds from fits to simulated QCD multijet background spectra, normalization region definitions, and normalization scale factors in data for different inclusive multiplicities. |
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Table 4:
Summary of systematic uncertainties in the signal acceptance and the background estimate. |
Summary |
A search has been presented for generic signals of beyond the standard model physics resulting in energetic multi-object final states, such as would be produced by semiclassical black holes, string balls, and electroweak sphalerons. The search was based on proton-proton collision data at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, collected with the CMS detector in 2016 and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb$^{-1}$. The background, dominated by QCD multijet production, is determined solely from low-multiplicity samples in data. Comparing the distribution of the total transverse momentum ${{S_\mathrm{T}}}$ of the final-state objects in data with that expected from the backgrounds, we set 95% confidence level model-independent upper limits on the product of the production cross section and acceptance for such final states, as a function of the minimum ${{S_\mathrm{T}}}$ for minimum final-state multiplicities between 3 and 11. These limits reach 0.08 fb at high ${{S_\mathrm{T}}}$ thresholds. By calculating the acceptance values for benchmark black hole, string ball, and sphaleron signal models, we convert these model-independent limits into lower limits on the minimum semiclassical black hole mass and string ball mass. The limits extend as high as 10.1 TeV, thus improving significantly on previous results. We have also set the first experimental upper limit on the electroweak sphaleron pre-exponential factor of 0.021 for the sphaleron transition energy of 9 TeV. |
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