CMS-PAS-SMP-14-008 | ||
Prospects for the study of vector boson scattering in same sign WW and WZ interactions at the HL-LHC with the upgraded CMS detector | ||
CMS Collaboration | ||
September 2016 | ||
Abstract: Studies of the $ \mathrm{ pp \rightarrow W^{\pm}Z jj }$ and $ \mathrm{ pp \rightarrow W^{\pm} W^{\pm} jj } $ vector boson scattering processes in 14 TeV pp collisions using the planned upgrades of the CMS detector are presented. These studies include assessments on the expected precision in measuring the electroweak cross sections, the discovery potential for observing longitudinal vector boson scattering and limits on partial unitarization scenarios between vector boson scattering and the Higgs boson. Beyond the standard model sensitivity is probed in the framework of the effective field theory by extracting expected limits on quartic gauge couplings for $\mathrm{ {W}^{\pm} {W}^{\pm} }$ scattering. All results are presented with a luminosity of 3 ab$^{-1}$ and comparisons with the non upgraded CMS detector including its aging due to radiation are performed. | ||
Links: CDS record (PDF) ; inSPIRE record ; CADI line (restricted) ; |
Figures | |
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Figure 1:
Representative tree level Feynman diagrams for EWK WZ scattering interactions. |
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Figure 1-a:
Representative tree level Feynman diagram for EWK WZ scattering interactions. |
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Figure 1-b:
Representative tree level Feynman diagram for EWK WZ scattering interactions. |
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Figure 1-c:
Representative tree level Feynman diagram for EWK WZ scattering interactions. |
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Figure 2:
Example Feynman diagrams for EW or QCD $\mathrm{ W^{+}W^{+} } $ production. |
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Figure 2-a:
Example Feynman diagram for EW $\mathrm{ W^{+}W^{+} } $ production. |
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Figure 2-b:
Example Feynman diagram for EW $\mathrm{ W^{+}W^{+} } $ production. |
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Figure 2-c:
Example Feynman diagram for EW $\mathrm{ W^{+}W^{+} } $ production. |
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Figure 2-d:
Example Feynman diagram for QCD $\mathrm{ W^{+}W^{+} } $ production. |
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Figure 3:
Distributions of the di-lepton invariant mass ($m_{\ell \ell }$), the ${p_{\mathrm {T}}}$ of the leading lepton ($ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^{l1}$), the difference in $\phi $ angle between the tag jets ($\Delta \phi _{jj}$), the difference in pseudorapidity between the tag jets ($\Delta \eta _{jj}$), the tag jets invariant mass ($m_{jj}$) and the variable $R = { {p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^{\ell _1}\cdot {p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^{\ell _2}}/({ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^{j_1}\cdot {p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^{j_2}})$, where $ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^{\ell _1}$ and $ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^{\ell _2}$ ($ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^{j_1}$ and $ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^{j_2}$) are the ${p_{\mathrm {T}}}$ of the two leptons (tag jets), for the Phase II detector, after the same-sign W$^{\pm }$W$^{\pm }$ selection. The signal and the backgrounds are reported, normalized to the integrated luminosity of 3 ab$^{-1}$. In particular, the blue continuous line corresponds to the EWK di-boson scattering in the Standard Model, the dashed pink one corresponds to the EWK di-boson scattering in absence of the Higgs boson, while the continuous red line corresponds to the difference between the two. |
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Figure 3-a:
Distribution of the di-lepton invariant mass ($m_{\ell \ell }$) for the Phase II detector, after the same-sign W$^{\pm }$W$^{\pm }$ selection. The signal and the backgrounds are reported, normalized to the integrated luminosity of 3 ab$^{-1}$. In particular, the blue continuous line corresponds to the EWK di-boson scattering in the Standard Model, the dashed pink one corresponds to the EWK di-boson scattering in absence of the Higgs boson, while the continuous red line corresponds to the difference between the two. |
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Figure 3-b:
Distribution of the ${p_{\mathrm {T}}}$ of the leading lepton ($ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^{l1}$) for the Phase II detector, after the same-sign W$^{\pm }$W$^{\pm }$ selection. The signal and the backgrounds are reported, normalized to the integrated luminosity of 3 ab$^{-1}$. In particular, the blue continuous line corresponds to the EWK di-boson scattering in the Standard Model, the dashed pink one corresponds to the EWK di-boson scattering in absence of the Higgs boson, while the continuous red line corresponds to the difference between the two. |
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Figure 3-c:
Distribution of the difference in $\phi $ angle between the tag jets ($\Delta \phi _{jj}$) for the Phase II detector, after the same-sign W$^{\pm }$W$^{\pm }$ selection. The signal and the backgrounds are reported, normalized to the integrated luminosity of 3 ab$^{-1}$. In particular, the blue continuous line corresponds to the EWK di-boson scattering in the Standard Model, the dashed pink one corresponds to the EWK di-boson scattering in absence of the Higgs boson, while the continuous red line corresponds to the difference between the two. |
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Figure 3-d:
Distribution of the difference in pseudorapidity between the tag jets ($\Delta \eta _{jj}$) for the Phase II detector, after the same-sign W$^{\pm }$W$^{\pm }$ selection. The signal and the backgrounds are reported, normalized to the integrated luminosity of 3 ab$^{-1}$. In particular, the blue continuous line corresponds to the EWK di-boson scattering in the Standard Model, the dashed pink one corresponds to the EWK di-boson scattering in absence of the Higgs boson, while the continuous red line corresponds to the difference between the two. |
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Figure 3-e:
Distribution or the tag jets invariant mass ($m_{jj}$) for the Phase II detector, after the same-sign W$^{\pm }$W$^{\pm }$ selection. The signal and the backgrounds are reported, normalized to the integrated luminosity of 3 ab$^{-1}$. In particular, the blue continuous line corresponds to the EWK di-boson scattering in the Standard Model, the dashed pink one corresponds to the EWK di-boson scattering in absence of the Higgs boson, while the continuous red line corresponds to the difference between the two. |
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Figure 3-f:
Distribution of the variable $R = { {p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^{\ell _1}\cdot {p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^{\ell _2}}/({ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^{j_1}\cdot {p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^{j_2}})$, where $ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^{\ell _1}$ and $ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^{\ell _2}$ ($ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^{j_1}$ and $ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^{j_2}$) are the ${p_{\mathrm {T}}}$ of the two leptons (tag jets), for the Phase II detector, after the same-sign W$^{\pm }$W$^{\pm }$ selection. The signal and the backgrounds are reported, normalized to the integrated luminosity of 3 ab$^{-1}$. In particular, the blue continuous line corresponds to the EWK di-boson scattering in the Standard Model, the dashed pink one corresponds to the EWK di-boson scattering in absence of the Higgs boson, while the continuous red line corresponds to the difference between the two. |
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Figure 4:
On the left, the expected total uncertainty for the various scenarios with several possible scale factors to the fake rate, for the same-sign EWK WW cross section measurement after 3 ab$^{-1}$ of collected data. On the right, the evolution of the analysis uncertainty, for the unity scale factor of the fake rate, as a function of the collected luminosity. |
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Figure 4-a:
The expected total uncertainty for the various scenarios with several possible scale factors to the fake rate, for the same-sign EWK WW cross section measurement after 3 ab$^{-1}$ of collected data. |
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Figure 4-b:
The evolution of the analysis uncertainty, for the unity scale factor of the fake rate, as a function of the collected luminosity. |
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Figure 5:
Distributions of the difference in $\phi $ angle between the tag jets ($\Delta \phi _{jj}$) and the $ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} $ of the leading lepton ($ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^{l1}$), for LL, TL, and TT components of the EWK W$^{\pm }$W$^{\pm }$ after the same-sign W$^{\pm }$W$^{\pm }$ selection and for the Phase II detector. The distributions for the three components are normalized to unity. |
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Figure 5-a:
Distribution of the difference in $\phi $ angle between the tag jets ($\Delta \phi _{jj}$), for LL, TL, and TT components of the EWK W$^{\pm }$W$^{\pm }$ after the same-sign W$^{\pm }$W$^{\pm }$ selection and for the Phase II detector. The distributions for the three components are normalized to unity. |
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Figure 5-b:
Distribution of the $ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} $ of the leading lepton ($ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^{l1}$), for LL, TL, and TT components of the EWK W$^{\pm }$W$^{\pm }$ after the same-sign W$^{\pm }$W$^{\pm }$ selection and for the Phase II detector. The distributions for the three components are normalized to unity. |
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Figure 6:
On the left, the expected discovery significance for the longitudinal vector boson scattering for the various detector scenarios with several possible scale factors to the fake rate after 3 ab$^{-1}$ of data, for the same-sign WW analysis. On the right, the evolution of the discovery sensitivity, for the unity scale factor of the fake rate, as a function of the collected luminosity. |
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Figure 6-a:
The expected discovery significance for the longitudinal vector boson scattering for the various detector scenarios with several possible scale factors to the fake rate after 3 ab$^{-1}$ of data, for the same-sign WW analysis. |
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Figure 6-b:
The evolution of the discovery sensitivity, for the unity scale factor of the fake rate, as a function of the collected luminosity. |
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Figure 7:
The expected 95% CL exclusion power for the no-Higgs scenario after 3 ab$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity and as a function of the data/MC fake lepton scale factor (left), and as a function of the integrated luminosity when the fake lepton scale factor is set to one (right). The limit is expressed as deviation from the Standard Model divided by the difference of the no-Higgs case from the Standard Model itself. |
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Figure 7-a:
The expected 95% CL exclusion power for the no-Higgs scenario after 3 ab$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity as a function of the data/MC fake lepton scale factor. The limit is expressed as deviation from the Standard Model divided by the difference of the no-Higgs case from the Standard Model itself. |
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Figure 7-b:
The expected 95% CL exclusion power for the no-Higgs scenario after 3 ab$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity as a function of the integrated luminosity when the fake lepton scale factor is set to one. The limit is expressed as deviation from the Standard Model divided by the difference of the no-Higgs case from the Standard Model itself. |
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Figure 8:
Test statistic between the hypothesis of the partial unitarization in the case of $\kappa _V^2=$ 0.5 and the SM ($\kappa _V^2= $ 1) after 3 ab$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity and unity scale factor of the fake lepton rate for the Phase II detector (left), and the expected separation between the SM and partial unitarization scenarios as a function of $\kappa _V^2$ for the same luminosity and lepton fake rate for the three detector scenarios (right). |
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Figure 8-a:
Test statistic between the hypothesis of the partial unitarization in the case of $\kappa _V^2=$ 0.5 and the SM ($\kappa _V^2= $ 1) after 3 ab$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity and unity scale factor of the fake lepton rate for the Phase II detector. |
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Figure 8-b:
The expected separation between the SM and partial unitarization scenarios as a function of $\kappa _V^2$ after 3 ab$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity and unity scale factor of the fake lepton rate for the Phase II detector. |
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Figure 9:
Distributions of the di-lepton invariant mass ($m_{\ell \ell }$) for $m_{\ell \ell }> $ 600 GeV for the SM signal and its modifications for two values of the coefficient associated with the $S_0$ (left) and $T_0$ (right) operators. |
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Figure 9-a:
Distribution of the di-lepton invariant mass ($m_{\ell \ell }$) for $m_{\ell \ell }> $ 600 GeV for the SM signal and its modifications for two values of the coefficient associated with the $S_0$ operator. |
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Figure 9-b:
Distribution of the di-lepton invariant mass ($m_{\ell \ell }$) for $m_{\ell \ell }> $ 600 GeV for the SM signal and its modifications for two values of the coefficient associated with the $T_0$ operator. |
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Figure 10:
Expected 95% CL limits on the coefficient associated to the S${_1}$ operator for the unity scale factor of the fake lepton rate and the three detector scenarios as a function of the collected luminosity (left) and 2D contour 95% CL limits on the coefficients associated to the S${_0}$ and S${_1}$ operators for 3 ab$^{-1}$ of data and the unity scale factor of the fake lepton rate for the three detector scenarios (right). |
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Figure 10-a:
Expected 95% CL limits on the coefficient associated to the S${_1}$ operator for the unity scale factor of the fake lepton rate and the three detector scenarios as a function of the collected luminosity. |
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Figure 10-b:
2D contour 95% CL limits on the coefficients associated to the S${_0}$ and S${_1}$ operators for 3 ab$^{-1}$ of data and the unity scale factor of the fake lepton rate for the three detector scenarios. |
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Figure 11:
Distributions of the difference in azimuthal angle between the tag jets ($\Delta \varphi _{jj}$), the difference in pseudorapidity between the same sign leptons ($\Delta \eta _{ll}^{\rm SS}$), the $ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} $ of di-jet pair ($ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^{jj}$) and the $ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} $ of the leading lepton ($ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^{l1}$) for the Phase II detector, after the WZ selection. The signal and the backgrounds are reported, normalised to the integrated luminosity of 3 ab$^{-1}$. In particular, the blue continuous line corresponds to the EWK di-boson scattering in the Standard Model, the dashed pink one corresponds to the EWK di-boson scattering in absence of the Higgs boson, while the continuous red line corresponds to the difference between the two. |
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Figure 11-a:
Distributions of the difference in azimuthal angle between the tag jets ($\Delta \varphi _{jj}$) for the Phase II detector, after the WZ selection. The signal and the backgrounds are reported, normalised to the integrated luminosity of 3 ab$^{-1}$. In particular, the blue continuous line corresponds to the EWK di-boson scattering in the Standard Model, the dashed pink one corresponds to the EWK di-boson scattering in absence of the Higgs boson, while the continuous red line corresponds to the difference between the two. |
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Figure 11-b:
Distribution of the difference in pseudorapidity between the same sign leptons ($\Delta \eta _{ll}^{\rm SS}$) for the Phase II detector, after the WZ selection. The signal and the backgrounds are reported, normalised to the integrated luminosity of 3 ab$^{-1}$. In particular, the blue continuous line corresponds to the EWK di-boson scattering in the Standard Model, the dashed pink one corresponds to the EWK di-boson scattering in absence of the Higgs boson, while the continuous red line corresponds to the difference between the two. |
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Figure 11-c:
Distribution of the $ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} $ of di-jet pair ($ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^{jj}$) for the Phase II detector, after the WZ selection. The signal and the backgrounds are reported, normalised to the integrated luminosity of 3 ab$^{-1}$. In particular, the blue continuous line corresponds to the EWK di-boson scattering in the Standard Model, the dashed pink one corresponds to the EWK di-boson scattering in absence of the Higgs boson, while the continuous red line corresponds to the difference between the two. |
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Figure 11-d:
Distribution of the $ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} $ of the leading lepton ($ {p_{\mathrm {T}}} ^{l1}$) for the Phase II detector, after the WZ selection. The signal and the backgrounds are reported, normalised to the integrated luminosity of 3 ab$^{-1}$. In particular, the blue continuous line corresponds to the EWK di-boson scattering in the Standard Model, the dashed pink one corresponds to the EWK di-boson scattering in absence of the Higgs boson, while the continuous red line corresponds to the difference between the two. |
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Figure 12:
The expected total uncertainty for the various detector scenarios for the EWK WZ cross section measurement as a function of the collected luminosity. |
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Figure 13:
The expected discovery significance for the longitudinal vector boson scattering for the various detector scenarios as a function of the collected luminosity for the WZ analysis. |
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Figure 14:
The expected 95% CL exclusion power for the no-Higgs scenario as a function of the integrated luminosity for the WZ analysis The limit is expressed as deviation from the Standard Model divided by the difference of the no-Higgs case from the Standard Model itself. |
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Figure 15:
On the left, the expected discovery significance for the longitudinal vector boson scattering for the various detector scenarios with several possible scale factors to the fake rate after 3 ab$^{-1}$ of data, for the combination of same-sign WW and WZ analyses. On the right, the evolution of the discovery sensitivity, for the unity scale factor of the fake rate, as a function of the collected luminosity. |
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Figure 15-a:
The expected discovery significance for the longitudinal vector boson scattering for the various detector scenarios with several possible scale factors to the fake rate after 3 ab$^{-1}$ of data, for the combination of same-sign WW and WZ analyses. |
png pdf |
Figure 15-b:
The evolution of the discovery sensitivity, for the unity scale factor of the fake rate, as a function of the collected luminosity. |
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Figure 16:
The expected 95% CL exclusion power for the no-Higgs scenario after 3 ab$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity and as a function of the data/MC fake lepton scale factor (left), and as a function of the integrated luminosity when the fake lepton scale factor is set to one (right) for the combination of same-sign WW and WZ analyses. The limit is expressed as deviation from the Standard Model divided by the difference of the no-Higgs case from the Standard Model itself. |
png pdf |
Figure 16-a:
The expected 95% CL exclusion power for the no-Higgs scenario after 3 ab$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity as a function of the data/MC fake lepton scale factor for the combination of same-sign WW and WZ analyses. The limit is expressed as deviation from the Standard Model divided by the difference of the no-Higgs case from the Standard Model itself. |
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Figure 16-b:
The expected 95% CL exclusion power for the no-Higgs scenario after 3 ab$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity as a function of the integrated luminosity when the fake lepton scale factor is set to one for the combination of same-sign WW and WZ analyses. The limit is expressed as deviation from the Standard Model divided by the difference of the no-Higgs case from the Standard Model itself. |
Tables | |
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Table 1:
The systematics used for the $\mathrm{ W^{\pm } W^{\pm } } $ and WZ scattering analyses for each of the detector scenarios considered. The second and third columns indicate which systematics are used by the two analyses. |
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Table 2:
Expected 95% CL limits on the coefficients for BSM higher order (dimension-eight) operators in the EFT Lagrangian for 3 ab$^{-1}$ of data and the unity scale factor of the fake lepton rate for the three detector scenarios. The last column is summarizing the LHC Run-I observed upper limits obtained so far by CMS [12,39,38]. |
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Table 3:
Results of the combination of WW and WZ analyses, assuming a scale factor of 1 for the lepton fake rate, for the expected significance of the longitudinal scattering observation and expected 95% CL limit on deviations from the Standard Model due to partial unitarization schemes. |
Summary |
This work presents a feasibility study for the measurement of vector boson scattering properties with the CMS detector at the high-luminosity LHC. Two promising fully leptonic final states have been investigated: the same sign W bosons and WZ boson pairs. An attempt is made to include all expected sources of backgrounds, including the reducible ones, as the ones due to jets faking leptons. Given the large uncertainty on the detailed detector simulation, results are expressed as a function of a data/MC scale factor for the lepton fake rate. The precision in the measurement of the EWK component cross-section has been determined to be 10% or better after the total integrated luminosity that will be collected by the CMS experiment, namely 3 ab$^{-1}$. With this level of accuracy it has been possible to study the sensitivity of the analysis to scenarios beyond the Standard Model. On the one hand, the performance in detecting the presence of additional dimension eight operators in the effective field theory framework has been shown to improve significantly with respect to the current limits on quartic anomalous gauge couplings. On the other hand, the study of these final states proves to be able to separate cases where the standard model is only partially unitarized in the vector boson scattering. The sensitivity to the very small longitudinal component of the vector boson scattering has been studied. In this case, the full statistics available allows for some discrimination of a signal, approaching the 3$\sigma$ level. Results have been presented for three scenarios, characterized by different conditions of the CMS detector during the LHC high luminosity data taking. The current detector design, aged by the long irradiation, has been compared to a model with tracker system, muon system and forward calorimetry upgraded to stand the harsh environment of the high luminosity LHC. Also the non-aged current CMS detector has been tested, in order to provide a benchmark of the physics performance of the present CMS detector. The comparison of the results for these three detector scenarios, clearly shows that the detector upgrade will recover the performance lost due to the aging of the current CMS hardware. Further improvements in background rejection are expected, when the b-veto capability of the tracker extension in Phase II will be considered as well. |
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Compact Muon Solenoid LHC, CERN |