CMSPASEXO23010  
Search for nonresonant new physics in highmass dilepton events in association with btagged jets  
CMS Collaboration  
23 July 2024  
Abstract: A search for nonresonant new physics phenomena in highmass dilepton events produced in association with btagged jets is performed using the data collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC at a centerofmass energy of 13 TeV. The analysis considers two EFTbased models with 6dimensional operators involving four fermion contact interactions between two leptons (electrons and muons) and b or s quarks ($ \mathrm{bb\ell\ell} $ and $ \mathrm{bs\ell\ell} $). The analysis considers two lepton flavor combinations ($ \mathrm{ee} $ and $ \mu\mu $) and classifies events as having 0, 1, and $ \geq 2 \mathrm{b} $tagged jets in the final state. No significant excess is observed over the smoothly falling standard model background. Upper limits on the product of production cross section and branching fraction of the new physics are set. These translate into lower limits on the energy scale $ \Lambda $ of 8.3 to 9.0 TeV in the $ \mathrm{bb\ell\ell} $ model, depending on model parameters, and on the ratio of energy scale and coupling $ \Lambda/g_{*} $ of 2.0 to 2.6 TeV in the $ \mathrm{bs\ell\ell} $ model. The latter represent the most stringent limits on this model to date. Lepton flavor universality is also tested by comparing the dielectron and dimuon mass spectra for different btagged jet multiplicities.  
Links: CDS record (PDF) ; CADI line (restricted) ; 
Figures  
png pdf 
Figure 1:
Representative Feynman diagrams for the production of dileptons via the $ \mathrm{b}\bar{\mathrm{b}}\ell^{+}\ell^{} $ operator at the LHC, in association with 0 (left), 1 (center), and 2 (right) b quarks. 
png pdf 
Figure 2:
Representative Feynman diagrams for the production of dileptons via the $ \mathrm{b} \mathrm{s}\ell^{+}\ell^{} $ operator at the LHC within the EFT approach. 
png 
Figure 2a:
Representative Feynman diagrams for the production of dileptons via the $ \mathrm{b} \mathrm{s}\ell^{+}\ell^{} $ operator at the LHC within the EFT approach. 
png 
Figure 2b:
Representative Feynman diagrams for the production of dileptons via the $ \mathrm{b} \mathrm{s}\ell^{+}\ell^{} $ operator at the LHC within the EFT approach. 
png pdf 
Figure 3:
Observed $ m_{\ell\ell} $ for the data, and the postfit backgrounds (stacked histograms), in the signal region for $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ + 0 b jet (left) and $ \mu\mu $ + 0 b jet (right) channels. The lower panels show ratios of the data to the prefit background prediction and postfit background yield as red open squares and blue points, respectively. The dashed band in the lower panels indicates the systematic component of the postfit uncertainty. The solid lines in the upper panel corresponds to the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal expectation, for $ \Lambda = $ 6 TeV and 18 TeV. 
png pdf 
Figure 3a:
Observed $ m_{\ell\ell} $ for the data, and the postfit backgrounds (stacked histograms), in the signal region for $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ + 0 b jet (left) and $ \mu\mu $ + 0 b jet (right) channels. The lower panels show ratios of the data to the prefit background prediction and postfit background yield as red open squares and blue points, respectively. The dashed band in the lower panels indicates the systematic component of the postfit uncertainty. The solid lines in the upper panel corresponds to the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal expectation, for $ \Lambda = $ 6 TeV and 18 TeV. 
png pdf 
Figure 3b:
Observed $ m_{\ell\ell} $ for the data, and the postfit backgrounds (stacked histograms), in the signal region for $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ + 0 b jet (left) and $ \mu\mu $ + 0 b jet (right) channels. The lower panels show ratios of the data to the prefit background prediction and postfit background yield as red open squares and blue points, respectively. The dashed band in the lower panels indicates the systematic component of the postfit uncertainty. The solid lines in the upper panel corresponds to the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal expectation, for $ \Lambda = $ 6 TeV and 18 TeV. 
png pdf 
Figure 4:
Observed $ m_{\ell\ell} $ for the data, and the postfit backgrounds (stacked histograms), in the signal region for $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ + 1 b jet (left) and $ \mu\mu $ + 1 b jet (right) channels. The lower panels show ratios of the data to the prefit background prediction and postfit background yield as red open squares and blue points, respectively. The dashed band in the lower panels indicates the systematic component of the postfit uncertainty. The solid lines in the upper panel corresponds to the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal expectation, for $ \Lambda = $ 6 TeV and 18 TeV. 
png pdf 
Figure 4a:
Observed $ m_{\ell\ell} $ for the data, and the postfit backgrounds (stacked histograms), in the signal region for $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ + 1 b jet (left) and $ \mu\mu $ + 1 b jet (right) channels. The lower panels show ratios of the data to the prefit background prediction and postfit background yield as red open squares and blue points, respectively. The dashed band in the lower panels indicates the systematic component of the postfit uncertainty. The solid lines in the upper panel corresponds to the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal expectation, for $ \Lambda = $ 6 TeV and 18 TeV. 
png pdf 
Figure 4b:
Observed $ m_{\ell\ell} $ for the data, and the postfit backgrounds (stacked histograms), in the signal region for $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ + 1 b jet (left) and $ \mu\mu $ + 1 b jet (right) channels. The lower panels show ratios of the data to the prefit background prediction and postfit background yield as red open squares and blue points, respectively. The dashed band in the lower panels indicates the systematic component of the postfit uncertainty. The solid lines in the upper panel corresponds to the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal expectation, for $ \Lambda = $ 6 TeV and 18 TeV. 
png pdf 
Figure 5:
Observed $ m_{\ell\ell} $ for the data, and the postfit backgrounds (stacked histograms), in the signal region for $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ + $ > $1 b jet (left) and $ \mu\mu $ + $ > $1 b jet (right) channels. The lower panels show ratios of the data to the prefit background prediction and postfit background yield as red open squares and blue points, respectively. The dashed band in the lower panels indicates the systematic component of the postfit uncertainty. The solid lines in the upper panel corresponds to the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal expectation, for $ \Lambda = $ 6 TeV and 18 TeV. 
png pdf 
Figure 5a:
Observed $ m_{\ell\ell} $ for the data, and the postfit backgrounds (stacked histograms), in the signal region for $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ + $ > $1 b jet (left) and $ \mu\mu $ + $ > $1 b jet (right) channels. The lower panels show ratios of the data to the prefit background prediction and postfit background yield as red open squares and blue points, respectively. The dashed band in the lower panels indicates the systematic component of the postfit uncertainty. The solid lines in the upper panel corresponds to the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal expectation, for $ \Lambda = $ 6 TeV and 18 TeV. 
png pdf 
Figure 5b:
Observed $ m_{\ell\ell} $ for the data, and the postfit backgrounds (stacked histograms), in the signal region for $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ + $ > $1 b jet (left) and $ \mu\mu $ + $ > $1 b jet (right) channels. The lower panels show ratios of the data to the prefit background prediction and postfit background yield as red open squares and blue points, respectively. The dashed band in the lower panels indicates the systematic component of the postfit uncertainty. The solid lines in the upper panel corresponds to the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal expectation, for $ \Lambda = $ 6 TeV and 18 TeV. 
png pdf 
Figure 6:
Ratio of the differential dilepton production cross section in the dimuon and dielectron channels as a function of dilepton mass in 0b final state (left) and 1b + 2b final state (right). The ratio is obtained after correcting the reconstructed mass spectra to particle level. The error bars include both statistical and systematic uncertainties. 
png pdf 
Figure 6a:
Ratio of the differential dilepton production cross section in the dimuon and dielectron channels as a function of dilepton mass in 0b final state (left) and 1b + 2b final state (right). The ratio is obtained after correcting the reconstructed mass spectra to particle level. The error bars include both statistical and systematic uncertainties. 
png pdf 
Figure 6b:
Ratio of the differential dilepton production cross section in the dimuon and dielectron channels as a function of dilepton mass in 0b final state (left) and 1b + 2b final state (right). The ratio is obtained after correcting the reconstructed mass spectra to particle level. The error bars include both statistical and systematic uncertainties. 
png pdf 
Figure 7:
Upper limits at 95% CL on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal with different chirality condition in $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ channel with $ \geq $ 0 btagged jets. The shaded bands correspond to the 68 and 95% quantiles for the expected limits. The red line corresponds to the theoretical predictions for the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal. 
png pdf 
Figure 7a:
Upper limits at 95% CL on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal with different chirality condition in $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ channel with $ \geq $ 0 btagged jets. The shaded bands correspond to the 68 and 95% quantiles for the expected limits. The red line corresponds to the theoretical predictions for the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal. 
png pdf 
Figure 7b:
Upper limits at 95% CL on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal with different chirality condition in $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ channel with $ \geq $ 0 btagged jets. The shaded bands correspond to the 68 and 95% quantiles for the expected limits. The red line corresponds to the theoretical predictions for the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal. 
png pdf 
Figure 7c:
Upper limits at 95% CL on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal with different chirality condition in $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ channel with $ \geq $ 0 btagged jets. The shaded bands correspond to the 68 and 95% quantiles for the expected limits. The red line corresponds to the theoretical predictions for the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal. 
png pdf 
Figure 7d:
Upper limits at 95% CL on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal with different chirality condition in $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ channel with $ \geq $ 0 btagged jets. The shaded bands correspond to the 68 and 95% quantiles for the expected limits. The red line corresponds to the theoretical predictions for the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal. 
png pdf 
Figure 8:
Upper limits at 95% CL on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal with different chirality condition in $ \mu\mu $ channel with $ \geq $ 0 btagged jets. The shaded bands correspond to the 68 and 95% quantiles for the expected limits. The red line corresponds to the theoretical predictions for the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal. 
png pdf 
Figure 8a:
Upper limits at 95% CL on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal with different chirality condition in $ \mu\mu $ channel with $ \geq $ 0 btagged jets. The shaded bands correspond to the 68 and 95% quantiles for the expected limits. The red line corresponds to the theoretical predictions for the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal. 
png pdf 
Figure 8b:
Upper limits at 95% CL on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal with different chirality condition in $ \mu\mu $ channel with $ \geq $ 0 btagged jets. The shaded bands correspond to the 68 and 95% quantiles for the expected limits. The red line corresponds to the theoretical predictions for the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal. 
png pdf 
Figure 8c:
Upper limits at 95% CL on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal with different chirality condition in $ \mu\mu $ channel with $ \geq $ 0 btagged jets. The shaded bands correspond to the 68 and 95% quantiles for the expected limits. The red line corresponds to the theoretical predictions for the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal. 
png pdf 
Figure 8d:
Upper limits at 95% CL on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal with different chirality condition in $ \mu\mu $ channel with $ \geq $ 0 btagged jets. The shaded bands correspond to the 68 and 95% quantiles for the expected limits. The red line corresponds to the theoretical predictions for the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal. 
png pdf 
Figure 9:
Upper limits at 95% CL on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{s}\ell\ell $ signal in $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ channel (left) and $ \mu\mu $ channel (right) with 0 btagged jets. The shaded bands correspond to the 68 and 95% quantiles for the expected limits. The red line corresponds to the theoretical predictions for the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{s}\ell\ell $ signal. 
png pdf 
Figure 9a:
Upper limits at 95% CL on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{s}\ell\ell $ signal in $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ channel (left) and $ \mu\mu $ channel (right) with 0 btagged jets. The shaded bands correspond to the 68 and 95% quantiles for the expected limits. The red line corresponds to the theoretical predictions for the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{s}\ell\ell $ signal. 
png pdf 
Figure 9b:
Upper limits at 95% CL on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{s}\ell\ell $ signal in $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ channel (left) and $ \mu\mu $ channel (right) with 0 btagged jets. The shaded bands correspond to the 68 and 95% quantiles for the expected limits. The red line corresponds to the theoretical predictions for the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{s}\ell\ell $ signal. 
png pdf 
Figure 10:
Upper limits at 95% CL on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{s}\ell\ell $ signal in $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ channel (left) and $ \mu\mu $ channel (right) with 1 btagged jets. The shaded bands correspond to the 68 and 95% quantiles for the expected limits. The red line corresponds to the theoretical predictions for the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{s}\ell\ell $ signal. 
png pdf 
Figure 10a:
Upper limits at 95% CL on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{s}\ell\ell $ signal in $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ channel (left) and $ \mu\mu $ channel (right) with 1 btagged jets. The shaded bands correspond to the 68 and 95% quantiles for the expected limits. The red line corresponds to the theoretical predictions for the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{s}\ell\ell $ signal. 
png pdf 
Figure 10b:
Upper limits at 95% CL on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{s}\ell\ell $ signal in $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ channel (left) and $ \mu\mu $ channel (right) with 1 btagged jets. The shaded bands correspond to the 68 and 95% quantiles for the expected limits. The red line corresponds to the theoretical predictions for the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{s}\ell\ell $ signal. 
Tables  
png pdf 
Table 1:
Overview of the signal and control regions. 
png pdf 
Table 2:
Measured $ SF_{t\bar{t}} $ in OS $ \mathrm{e}\mu $ control region for BB region. The errors are statistical uncertainty in data and MC yields. 
png pdf 
Table 3:
Measured $ SF_{t\bar{t}} $ in OS $ \mathrm{e}\mu $ control region for BE region. The errors are statistical uncertainty in data and MC yields. 
png pdf 
Table 4:
Observed scale factor and corresponding uncertainty in the $ Z $ boson control region for BB region in $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ channel. 
png pdf 
Table 5:
Observed scale factor and corresponding uncertainty in the $ Z $ boson control region for BE region in $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ channel. 
png pdf 
Table 6:
Observed scale factor and corresponding uncertainty in the $ Z $ boson control region for BB region in $ \mu\mu $ channel. 
png pdf 
Table 7:
Observed scale factor and corresponding uncertainty in the $ Z $ boson control region for BE region in $ \mu\mu $ channel. 
png pdf 
Table 8:
Scale of different systematic uncertainties for DY+jets background in the last two mass bins for $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ channel. 
png pdf 
Table 9:
Scale of different systematic uncertainties for DY+jets background in the last two mass bins for $ \mu\mu $ channel. 
png pdf 
Table 10:
Event yields for $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ channel in 0b final state. The uncertainties given with the yields include both statistical and systematic contributions. 
png pdf 
Table 11:
Event yields for $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ channel in 1b final state. The uncertainties given with the yields include both statistical and systematic contributions. 
png pdf 
Table 12:
Event yields for $ \mathrm{e}\mathrm{e} $ channel in 2b final state. The uncertainties given with the yields include both statistical and systematic contributions. 
png pdf 
Table 13:
Event yields for $ \mu\mu $ channel in 0b final state. The uncertainties given with the yields include both statistical and systematic contributions. 
png pdf 
Table 14:
Event yields for $ \mu\mu $ channel in 1b final state. The uncertainties given with the yields include both statistical and systematic contributions. 
png pdf 
Table 15:
Event yields for $ \mu\mu $ channel in 2b final state. The uncertainties given with the yields include both statistical and systematic contributions. 
png pdf 
Table 16:
Lower limits at 95% CL on the energy scale $ \Lambda $ in the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal model in TeV for constructive leftleft (ConLL), leftright (ConLR), rightleft (ConRL), and rightright (ConRR) chirality structures in the dielectron and dimuon channels and the combination of the two. 
png pdf 
Table 17:
Lower limits at 95% CL on $ \Lambda/g_{*} $ in the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{s}\ell\ell $ signal model in TeV for 0 b channel. Shown are the expected and observed limits in the dielectron and dimuon channels and the combination of the two. 
png pdf 
Table 18:
Lower limits at 95% CL on $ \Lambda/g_{*} $ in the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{s}\ell\ell $ signal model in TeV for 1 b channel. Shown are the expected and observed limits in the dielectron and dimuon channels and the combination of the two. 
png pdf 
Table 19:
Lower limits at 95% CL on $ \Lambda/g_{*} $ in the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{s}\ell\ell $ signal model in TeV for combined (0b+1b) channel. Shown are the expected and observed limits in the dielectron and dimuon channels and the combination of the two. 
Summary 
A search for new physics in the high mass dilepton final state produced in association with bjets has been performed, focusing on nonresonant phenomena. Two models of nonresonant signatures have been considered. In case of a fourfermion contact interaction in $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ production, lower limits on the scale of new physics ($ \Lambda $) range are set depending on the helicity structure of the interaction and the sign of its interference with the SM DY background. The observed limit is found to be around 8.39.0 TeV for the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{b}\ell\ell $ signal based on different chirality conditions. In the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{s}\ell\ell $ model, lower limits on the ratio of the energy scale of new physics to the coupling ($ \Lambda/g_{*} $) are set ranging from 1.9 to 2.2 TeV depending on the channel and 2.4 TeV for the combination of all the channels, using all data collected during the Run 2 data taking period. The limits on the $ \mathrm{b}\mathrm{s}\ell\ell $ model are the most stringent to date. Besides this, the dielectron and dimuon invariant mass spectra are corrected for the detector effects and, are compared at the TeV scale. No significant deviation in the lepton flavor ratio from the SM expectation is observed. 
References  
1  CMS Collaboration  Search for resonant and nonresonant new phenomena in highmass dilepton final states at $ \sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV  JHEP 07 (2021) 208  CMSEXO19019 2103.02708 
2  ATLAS Collaboration  Search for highmass dilepton resonances using 139 fb$ ^{1} $ of $ pp $ collision data collected at $ \sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector  PLB 796 (2019) 68  1903.06248 
3  ATLAS Collaboration  Search for new nonresonant phenomena in highmass dilepton final states with the ATLAS detector  JHEP 11 (2020) 005  2006.12946 
4  ATLAS Collaboration  Search for New Phenomena in Final States with Two Leptons and One or No $ b $Tagged Jets at $ \sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV Using the ATLAS Detector  PRL 127 (2021) 141801  2105.13847 
5  CMS Collaboration  Search for a highmass dimuon resonance produced in association with b quark jets at $ \sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV  JHEP 10 (2023) 043  CMSEXO22016 2307.08708 
6  CMS Collaboration  Search for lepton flavour universality violation via production of a new neutral gauge boson decaying to two muons with one or two bjets in pp collisions at $ \sqrt{s}= $ 13 TeV  technical report, CERN, Geneva, 2024 CDS 

7  J. Albrecht, D. van Dyk, and C. Langenbruch  Flavour anomalies in heavy quark decays  Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 120 (2021) 103885  2107.04822 
8  LHCb Collaboration  Measurement of lepton universality parameters in $ B^+\to K^+\ell^+\ell^ $ and $ B^0\to K^{*0}\ell^+\ell^ $ decays  PRD 108 (2023) 032002  2212.09153 
9  M. Abdullah et al.  Probing a simplified $ {W}^{'} $ model of $ r({D}^{(*)}) $ anomalies using $ b $ tags, $ \tau $ leptons, and missing energy  PRD 98 (2018) 055016  1805.01869 
10  B. Allanach  LHC dilepton searches for $ Z^\prime $ bosons which explain measurements of $ b \rightarrow s l^+l^ $ transitions  2404.14748  
11  Y. Afik, S. BarShalom, J. Cohen, and Y. Rozen  Searching for New Physics with $ b\bar{b} \ell^+ \ell^ $ contact interactions  PLB 807 (2020) 135541  1912.00425 
12  S. BarShalom, J. Cohen, A. Soni, and J. Wudka  Phenomenology of TeVscale scalar Leptoquarks in the EFT  PRD 100 (2019) 055020  1812.03178 
13  M. Kramer, T. Plehn, M. Spira, and P. M. Zerwas  Pair production of scalar leptoquarks at the CERN LHC  PRD 71 (2005) 057503  hepph/0411038 
14  I. Dorsner, S. Fajfer, and A. Greljo  Cornering Scalar Leptoquarks at LHC  JHEP 10 (2014) 154  1406.4831 
15  I. Doršner and A. Greljo  Leptoquark toolbox for precision collider studies  JHEP 05 (2018) 126  1801.07641 
16  Y. Afik et al.  Establishing a Search for $ b \rightarrow s \ell^{+} \ell^{} $ Anomalies at the LHC  JHEP 08 (2018) 056  1805.11402 
17  S. Patnaik and R. Singh  A Light Shed on Lepton Flavor Universality in B Decays  Universe 9 (2023) 129  2211.04348 
18  B. Gripaios, M. Nardecchia, and S. A. Renner  Composite leptoquarks and anomalies in $ B $meson decays  JHEP 05 (2015) 006  1412.1791 
19  CMS Collaboration  Performance of the CMS Level1 trigger in protonproton collisions at $ \sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV  JINST 15 (2020) P10017  CMSTRG17001 2006.10165 
20  CMS Collaboration  The CMS trigger system  JINST 12 (2017) P01020  CMSTRG12001 1609.02366 
21  CMS Collaboration  The CMS experiment at the CERN LHC  JINST 3 (2008) S08004  
22  J. Alwall et al.  The automated computation of treelevel and nexttoleading order differential cross sections and their matching to parton shower simulations  JHEP 07 (2014) 079  1405.0301 
23  R. Frederix and S. Frixione  Merging meets matching in MC@NLO  JHEP 12 (2012) 061  1209.6215 
24  S. Alioli, P. Nason, C. Oleari, and E. Re  A general framework for implementing NLO calculations in shower Monte Carlo programs: the POWHEG BOX  JHEP 06 (2010) 043  1002.2581 
25  C. Degrande et al.  UFO  The Universal FeynRules Output  Comput. Phys. Commun. 183 (2012) 1201  1108.2040 
26  J. Alwall et al.  Comparative study of various algorithms for the merging of parton showers and matrix elements in hadronic collisions  EPJC 53 (2008) 473  0706.2569 
27  T. Sjöstrand et al.  An introduction to PYTHIA 8.2  Comput. Phys. Commun. 191 (2015) 159  1410.3012 
28  CMS Collaboration  Extraction and validation of a new set of CMS PYTHIA8 tunes from underlyingevent measurements  EPJC 80 (2020) 4  CMSGEN17001 1903.12179 
29  NNPDF Collaboration  Parton distributions from highprecision collider data  EPJC 77 (2017) 663  1706.00428 
30  GEANT4 Collaboration  GEANT 4a simulation toolkit  NIM A 506 (2003) 250  
31  CMS Collaboration  Particleflow reconstruction and global event description with the CMS detector  JINST 12 (2017) P10003  CMSPRF14001 1706.04965 
32  CMS Collaboration  Technical proposal for the PhaseII upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid  CMS Technical Proposal CERNLHCC2015010, CMSTDR1502, 2015 CDS 

33  CMS Collaboration  Electron and photon reconstruction and identification with the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC  JINST 16 (2021) P05014  CMSEGM17001 2012.06888 
34  CMS Collaboration  Performance of the CMS muon trigger system in protonproton collisions at $ \sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV  JINST 16 (2021) P07001  CMSMUO19001 2102.04790 
35  CMS Collaboration  Performance of the reconstruction and identification of highmomentum muons in protonproton collisions at $ \sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV  JINST 15 (2020) P02027  CMSMUO17001 1912.03516 
36  M. Cacciari, G. P. Salam, and G. Soyez  The anti$ k_{\mathrm{T}} $ jet clustering algorithm  JHEP 04 (2008) 063  0802.1189 
37  M. Cacciari, G. P. Salam, and G. Soyez  Fastjet user manual  EPJC 72 (2012) 1896  1111.6097 
38  CMS Collaboration  Pileup mitigation at CMS in 13 TeV data  JINST 15 (2020) P09018  CMSJME18001 2003.00503 
39  E. Bols et al.  Jet flavour classification using DeepJet  JINST 15 (2020) P12012  2008.10519 
40  CMS Collaboration  Performance summary of AK4 jet b tagging with data from protonproton collisions at 13 TeV with the CMS detector  CMS Detector Performance Note CMSDP2023005, 2023 CDS 

41  CMS Collaboration  Performance of missing transverse momentum reconstruction in protonproton collisions at $ \sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV using the CMS detector  JINST 14 (2019) P07004  CMSJME17001 1903.06078 
42  CMS Collaboration  Search for physics beyond the standard model in dilepton mass spectra in protonproton collisions at $ \sqrt{s}= $ 8 TeV  JHEP 04 (2015) 025  CMSEXO12061 1412.6302 
43  S. Schmitt  TUnfold: an algorithm for correcting migration effects in high energy physics  JINST 7 (2012) T10003  1205.6201 
44  CMS Collaboration  Precision luminosity measurement in protonproton collisions at $ \sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016 at CMS  EPJC 81 (2021) 800  CMSLUM17003 2104.01927 
45  CMS Collaboration  CMS luminosity measurement for the 2017 datataking period at $ \sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV  CMS Physics Analysis Summary, 2018 link 
CMSPASLUM17004 
46  CMS Collaboration  CMS luminosity measurement for the 2018 datataking period at $ \sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV  CMS Physics Analysis Summary, 2019 CMSPASLUM18002 
CMSPASLUM18002 
47  CMS Collaboration  Measurement of the inelastic protonproton cross section at $ \sqrt{s}= $ 13 TeV  JHEP 07 (2018) 161  CMSFSQ15005 1802.02613 
48  J. Butterworth et al.  PDF4LHC recommendations for LHC Run II  JPG 43 (2016) 023001  1510.03865 
49  CMS Collaboration  The CMS statistical analysis and combination tool: Combine  Accepted by Comput. Softw. Big Sci, 2024  CMSCAT23001 2404.06614 
Compact Muon Solenoid LHC, CERN 